Tibet, Vaishravana retinue figures (2)

15th century, Tibet, Vaishravana retinue figures, gilt copper alloy with turquoise, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

These two figures riding a horse and holding a jewel-spitting mongoose in their left hand are part of Vaishravana’s retinue of eight horsemen. Like him, they have a yaksha appearance and may be dressed in kingly attire (early works) or in Mongolian armour and boots. The one on the left holds a (missing) spear or a lance, which corresponds to Atavaka. Next to him, Manibadhra holds a jewel in his right hand.

Unlabelled (16th-18th century, Tibet, Vaishravana retinue figure, stone and paint), private collection, photo on HAR

Bijakundalin is the one who turns his back to the viewer; he holds a sword in his right hand and may have a shield, as above. We saw a similar stone sculpture of another figure dated 16th century by the Rubin Museum of Art .



Tibet, Vajradhara – alone (17)

15th century, Tibet, Vajradhara, bronze (copper alloy), private collection?, photo on Artkhade

15th century, Tibet, Vajradhara, gilt bronze with turquoise inlay, private collection?, photo on Artkhade as above.

Seated in the vajra position, dressed in princely attire, Vajradhara holds a vajra sceptre and a vajra bell in his hands crossed over his heart.

Late 15th century, Western Tibet, Guge, Vajradhara, brass with traces of gilding, private collection, photo on Jstor (after Jin Tong Fo Xian).

15th-16th century, Western Tibet, Guge, Vajradhara, brass, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s, 1992.

Late Guge-style figures often have an oval face with thin facial features, a large raised urna and a sharp nose, a Kashmiri-style cruciform navel, a long and ample lower garment and a silk shawl draped in the Chinese fashion, a crown with the leaves set wide apart.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Vajradhara, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt

16th century, Tibet, Vajradhara, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.Alternatively he may have lotuses on each side of him to support his attributes. This Chinese-style figure has the flowers fastened to his elbows.

Tibet, Vajrayogini – variants (7)

16th-17th century, Tibet, Vajrayogini, copper alloy with stones and traces of paint, private collection, photo on VAN HAM.

Vajrayogini, in a rare form called vajrapravana on paintings (with a green body), standing on both feet and facing the viewer, brandishing a flaying knife in her right hand and holding a skull cup before her heart and a ritual staff in the crook of her left arm. She is adorned with a five-skull crown, a garland of severed head, bone jewellery, a half-vajra finial, and wears an animal skin around her waist.

Undated, Tibet, Vajrayogini, gilt bronze (copper alloy), at the American Museum of Natural History in New York (USA).

Another rare image of Vajrayogini, probably in her Maitri Kachod form, standing on both feet and facing the viewer, holding a vajra sceptre pointing to her right foot and a skull cup before her heart, adorned with bone ornaments and a garland of severed heads, her mouth open to reveal her bared fangs. This form may have loose black hair; the above has an Indian-style braided chignon topped with a finial just like the figure we saw from the Royal Ontario  museum.

Undated, Tibet, Naro Mkha’Spyod Ma (Naro Khachoma), gilt bronze, at the American Museum of Natural History in New York (USA).

Vajrayogini in her Sarvabuddha Dakini aspect never looks at the viewer. Her head is turned towards the skull cup she holds in her left hand to drink from it. She always holds her flaying knife downwards, towards her right foot. In Tibet she is known as Naro Khachoma and other similar names.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Vajrayogini, gilt copper alloy with polychromy, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art (USA).

She has the aspect of a young girl and may stand on one or both feet, usually on one or two victims.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Vajravarahi (labelled ‘Dakini’), gilt copper (or copper alloy), private collection?, photo on GG-ART

The Vajravarahi form is identified by the sow’s head coming out of her right temple. Always facing the viewer, she stands in a dancing posture, her right leg in the air, the other on Hindu goddess Kalaratri. She wears a skull crown and a garland of severed heads, brandishes a flaying knife above her head and holds a skull cup before her heart. A ritual staff (missing here) is usually propped against her left arm.

Circa 15th century, Tibet, Vajrayogini, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by John Siudmak.

The Vajradakini form has the same appearance as Vajravarahi but without the sow’s head.

Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (18)

16th-17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), wood, private collection, photo on Drouot.

Yellow Jambhala, an emanation of buddha Ratnasambhava, has a peaceful yaksha appearance and is nearly always seated, holding a jewel-spitting mongoose in his left hand and a citron or a gem-shaped fruit in the other at knee level. The above wears a celestial scarf and cross-belt.

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze, stones and plinth renovated, private collection, photo on Gazette Drouot as before.

He sometimes has a pot of gems against his right arm and his right foot usually rests on a pot of gem welded to the base.

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze (brass), private collection, photo on Drouot .

An example with an incised geometrical motif around the plinth and on his garment.

18th century or earlier, Tibet or Nepal, Jambhala, gilt bronze with turquoise (and glass), private collection, photo on  Gazette Drouot.

We have seen quite a few sculptures of him sitting on a lotus atop an openwork base supported by vases of abundance.

Undated (circa 16th century?), Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze with turquoise and coral inlay, private collection?, photo on GG-ART .

On this masterpiece with Chinese-style features, such as the shape of his topknot and the fat lotus petals with a curly tip, the mongoose is vividly and realistically rendered.

Tibet, Marpa Chokyi Lodrö (3)

Undated, Tibet, lama, brass with silver and copper inlay, photo on Auction ArtAn elderly Marpa, seated at ease on a cushion covered with a blanket, his thick hair combed back, his clothes covering both arms (indicating that he was a layman, not a monk) and decorated with silver and copper roundels and silver-beaded seams.

16th century, Tibet, Marpa Chokyi Lodro, stone (with cold gold and pigments), photo by Hanhai Auction on HAR .

Few sculptures depict him as a younger man. The above has a moustache and wears earrings. His is seated on a small cushion atop a plinth decorated with a gilt motif and gems. He wears an unusual open-breast garment on top of his gown and a meditation cloak over his shoulders.

17th century, Tibet, Marpa, silver, private collection, photo on Artkhade

This famous Tibetan teacher (lama) and translator (lotsawa) is often shown frowning and with both hands over his knees.

Undated, Tibet Marpa Chokyi Lodro, metal (brass), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources See biographical notes on HAR and on Treasury of Lives


Tibet, Achala – various forms (4)

12th-13th century, Tibet, Achala, bronze, private collection, photo on Nagel Blue Achala may have a fierce yaksha appearance with wrathful ornaments…

Unlabelled (circa 15th century?, Tibet, Achala, gilt copper or copper alloy with turquoise) private collection, photo on HAR  

… or a human one (with a third eye) and princely accessories. He may be kneeling on one knee (often the left one in Tibet, the right one in Nepal), in which case there is no victim under him.

Unlabelled (Tibet probably, Achala, brass), private collection, photo on HAR 

Or he may be standing on Ganapati or on 2 victims. He normally bites his lower lip with his upper fangs, as can be clearly seen on this example. We will note the skimpy and tight-fitting tiger skin loin cloth (see the page on Wrathful Deities in the left hand side of this blog).

15th century, Tibet, Achala, bronze (copper alloy), private collection, on Hardt (p. 41).The victims are not depicted here.

Undated, Tibet, Achala, metal with cold gold and pigment, at the American Museum of National History in New York (USA).

A singular Achala with the effigy of a buddha (likely to be Akshobhya) on top of his flaming hair, standing on two victims atop a 12th or 13th century-style lotus base, brandishing a sword in his right hand and holding a (missing) lasso slightly away from him, instead of before his heart as would be expected. He is adorned with snakes including a long one across his chest worn as a sacred cord.

16th century, Tibet, Achala and consort, stone, private collection, photo by Holly’s International.Chandamaharoshana Achala with one head and two hands, in which he holds a sword and a noose, half kneeling and half crouching, in embrace with his consort, who has both legs around his waist and holds a skull cup and a flaying knife. The above has a human appearance and wears princely accessories.

18th century, Tibet, Achala and Dveshavajri, copper alloy, collection of the Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami (USA), photo on Bridgeman

This one has a  fierce yaksha appearance and is adorned with snakes. His consort wears bone ornaments.

Tibet, Mahakala – Shadbhuja (10)

12th-14th century, Tibet, Mahakala, black chlorite, private collection, photo on Aguttes , Arts d’Asie 11th December 2017.

A rare stone stele of Mahakala with six arms, standing with his legs apart, treading on Ganapati and holding a flaying knife and a skull cup in his main hands. There is a rosary of skulls in his top right hand and a lasso in his lower left hand, the upper right hand would have held a trident or a ritual staff, the lower right hand held a drum. This form of shadbhuja Mahakala has a blue body on paintings.

16th-17th century, Tibet, Mahakala, clay, private collection, photo on Aguttes as before.

An unusual clay example with Ganapati seated in an awkward position, facing the viewer and holding his right hand palm out. Mahakala stands in a fighting posture and has a ritual staff in his upper left hand.

17th century, Tibet, Mahakala, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo on  Navin Kumar .

A Chinese-style image of him standing straight, adorned with a celestial scarf with serpentine ends, dressed in a long lower garment made of two layers of fine cloth with a lacy edge, topped with a tiger skin knotted at the front.

Circa 18th century, Tibet, Mahakala, bronze with pigments, Science Museum Group Collection (UK), photo here .

We get a clearer picture of four of the attributes here and we can see that the upper hands also hold an elephant hide stretched across his back and that he is adorned with a garland of severed heads, a five-skull crown and some jewellery. Ganapati holds a skull cup in his right hand.

18th century, Tibet, Shadbhuja Mahakala, gilt bronze with polychromy, private collection, photo on Tajan , Art d’Asie, 11th June 2018.

On this late Chinese-style work his tiger skin loin cloth is worn with the tail of the animal reaching the base (see the “tiger-skin loin cloth” subsection of the page on Wrathful Deities in the left-hand side of this blog).