Tibet, Manjushri – various forms (4)

7th-8th century, Tibet, Newari artist, Manjushri, copper alloy with traces of gilding and blue pigment, private collection, photo by Tenzing Asian Art http://tenzingasianart.com/gallery/bodhisattva-manjushri/.

This is an early form of White Manjushri, seated with his legs locked, his right hand held palm out, his left hand holding the Prajnaparamita sutra (or sometimes a conch shell) before him.

14th-15th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with traces of blue pigment, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html.

A rare sculpture of him holding the stem of an utpala topped with a manuscript, and holding another manuscript in his right hand, held down with the palm facing upwards.

14th century, Tibet, Nepalese artist, Manjushri, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Marcel Nies https://issuu.com/satelitcommunications/docs/the-path-to-enlightenment/48.This time the hand is held with the palm downwards. The position of the fingers indicates that they once clutched an attribute, probably a book judging by the gap and the height at which the hand is held.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper with silver and turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Koller.

From the 13th century onwards, White Manjushri is often flanked by lotuses supporting a book to his left and the hilt of a sword to his right, his hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture.

16th century, Central Tibet, Tsang province, Manjushri, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with silver and copper inlay, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/sculptures-statues-figures/a-silver-and-copper-inlaid-gilt-bronze-figure-of-6158378-details.aspx?from=salesummery&intObjectID=6158378&sid=9a9c059a-dd77-4933-96c8-0248e80792bc.

Manjushri with flaming sword, seated with his legs locked, his left hand doing the teaching gesture, a blue lotus fastened to his arm to support the book.

16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze (brass) with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo by Hollywood Galleries https://www.auction.de/highlights_681_e.php.

Manjushri with sword, standing and holding the stem of a lotus that supports a book topped with a flaming triple gem (triratna).

17th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel https://www.auction.de/highlights_681_e.php.

A late work, showing him sword in hand, the lotus that supports the book missing or not featured.

14th century, Tibet, Manjugosha (Manjuvajra), gilt bronze with stones, private collection, photo by Nagel https://www.auction.de/catalogues/epaper-101-China-1/index.html#48.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, Namasangiti, stone, private collection, photo by Christie’s http://en.51bidlive.com/PreView/PreViewDetails/1465409.

15th century, Tibet, Manjuvajra, copper alloy with gold, copper and silver inlay, private collection, photo by Hollywood Galleries https://issuu.com/andrewlau2/docs/the_touch_of_devotion______________.

Circa 16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html .

The Manjuvajra form of Manjushri may have one head and four arms, in which case he often holds a bow and an arrow, a sword, and a manuscript at heart level. In Tibet, he may hold a lotus that supports the book, as on the first two images.

16th-17th century, Tibet or China, Simhanada Manjughosha (Manjushri), zitan wood (red cedar) with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-gilt-and-polychromed-zitan-figure-of-6158332-details.aspx.

This form of Manjushri has no book. He sits on a snow lion, in the vajra position or with one leg pendent (as above), his hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture. He may have a lotus to his left, with or without the hilt of a sword, and often has an effigy of Akshobhya in his crown (not shown here). On paintings, his body his golden yellow, hence the use of cold gold all over his skin.

18th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper repoussé, private collection, photo by Nagel https://www.auction.de/catalogues/epaper-104-China-2/index.html#142.

We have seen time and time again that late sculptures often depart from standard iconography. The rosary in this character’s top right hand and the gesture of salutation with his main hands are associated with a four-hand form of Avalokiteshvara, yet Manjushri is the only male bodhisattva who may hold a manuscript in one of his hands (Akashagarbha may have one on his left shoulder).

 

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Tibet, Manjushri with sword (7)

11th-12th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, brass, private collection, photo by Bonhams https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/25115/lot/171/?category=list .

The bodhisattva of wisdom brandishing a sword (to cut through ignorance) and holding the Prajnaparamita sutra.

He wears a low tripartite crown with side bows, some jewellery and a cross belt.

His short garment is decorated with stippled dots and lotuses.

Circa 12th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with traces of blue pigment, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html.

Unlabelled (Tibet, Manjushri, brass), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/1696.

The manuscript may be on a lotus which he holds in his left hand. The way his dhoti forms a round shape  below the knees and the bits of cloth on each side are typical of the place and period.

Unlabelled (Tibet, Manjushri, brass?), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/10453.

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze (brass), private collection, photo by Christie’s.

Unlabelled (11th-12th century?, Western Tibet?), Manjushri, brass, private collection, photo by Mokotoff http://www.mokotoff.com/index/#/sculpture/.

The same character, seated at ease on a lotus atop a Kashmiri-style plinth, his book resting on a blue lotus which he holds in his left hand.

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Bonhams https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/24777/lot/32/.

On this variant he is framed by lotuses, his left foot rests on a lotus that stems from the base, his left hand is open.

17th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with traces of cold gold, private collection, photo by Nagel.

Here, his left hand does the teaching gesture.

 

Tibet, Guhyasamaja – Akshobhyavajra (4)

Late 17th century, Tibet, (Akshobhyavajra) Guhyasamaja, gilt bronze (with turquoise inlay, cold gold and pigments), private collection, photo by Cambi Casa d’Aste https://www.cambiaste.com/uk/auction-0345-2/a-gilt-bronze-figure-of-guhyasamaja-seated-on-.asp.

The three-head and six-hand deity, always seated in embrace with his consort, Mamaki, holding a vajra sceptre and bell in his main hands crossed over her back, a wheel and a sword in his lower hands, a faceted jewel and a lotus in his upper hands, his chignon topped with a flaming jewel. Their faces are painted with cold gold and pigments.

She also has three heads and six hands and normally holds the same attributes although on this occasion she seems to be holding lotuses instead of the faceted jewel.

17th century, Tibet, (Akshobhyavajra) Guhyasamaja, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://cdn.polyauction.com.hk/default/auction/sale/xiang-gang-bao-li-2016nian-chun-pai-fo-xiang-zhuan-chang-dan-p_235dc5ae-62d9-49ec-8e77-eea8bc805ea7.pdf.

15th century, Tibet, (Akshobhyavajra) Guhyasamaja, gilt metal with turquoise inlay (and cold gold, pigments, coral and lapis lazuli), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/8050.

On this earlier work the wheel (which looks like a flower) is inlaid with turquoise and coral, the other attributes are surrounded with a flame. He often has a third eye, clearly visible here.

16th century, Tibet, (Akshobhyavajra) Guhyasamaja, gilt bronze with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Nagel https://www.auction.de/catalogues/epaper-101-China-1/index.html#126.

His earrings are usually flower-shaped wheels, sometimes studded with turquoise at the centre as above, or plain as below, or with inlaid with turquoise cabochons, as on the previous item.

15th century, Tibet, Guhyasamaja, Akshobhyavajra, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with cold gold and turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-gilt-bronze-figure-of-guhyasamaja-akshobhyavajra-5347337-details.aspx.

 

 

Tibet, Avalokiteshvara – seated (3)

Cir. 11th century, Tibet or India, Mahakarunalokeshvara, bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Nagel https://www.auction.de/catalogues/epaper-100-China-2/index.html#2.

Avalokiteshvara, identified by the effigy of Amitabha in his headdress, seated at royal ease, his right arm over his knee, leaning on his left arm and holding the stem of a lotus.

16th-17th century, Tibet, Avalokiteshvara, gilt bronze (copper alloy) and turquoise, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s https://www.sothebys.com.

A curious  mixture of Nepalese and Chinese features for this bodhisattva seated on a lotus base with an incised rim. He wears a long dhoti and a shawl decorated with stippled lotuses and an incised cloud motif, and is adorned with a headband with a large turquoise-inlaid flower and matching rosettes above his ears. No effigy of Amitabha. 

17th-18th century, Tibet, Avalokiteshvara, bronze (copper alloy) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (USA).

Although late works often depart from the prescribed form, the photo of this Chinese-style sculpture may be the wrong way round as he normally leans on his left arm and holds the stem of a lotus in his left hand.

12th-13th century, Tibet, Padmapani, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Hollywood Galleries https://hollywood-galleries.com

This Pala-style sculpture depicts Avalokiteshvara with a third eye and a moon crescent in his headdress (both associated with his simhanada form). He wears a broad sash and long dhoti decorated with a stippled lotus motif and holds the stem of a day lotus to his left and a night lotus to his right.

12th-13th century, Tibet, Padmapani, bronze with silver inlay, private collection, photo by Nagel https://www.auction.de/sales/703/703A-Beileger.pdf.

He often has a lotus embossed in the palm of his right hand, held in the gesture of supreme generosity.

8th century (or later?), Tibet, Padmapani, copper alloy (brass), private collection, photo by Hanhai auction http://hanhaiauction.com.

This Avalokiteshvara has a large effigy of Amitabha in his Swat-Valley style headdress and a Kashmiri-style flaming halo fastened to his back. The antelope skin has been replaced with a broad sash. The mixture of styles, the crudely rendered fingers and toes and the chiselled effect on the dhoti are associated with the (circa) 18th century.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Simhanada Lokeshvara, bronze with paint, at the State Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg (Rusia).

A rare Tibetan bronze of Avalokiteshvara seated sideways on a cushion, atop a roaring lion crouching and turning his head towards him. To his right, a tridanda (trident made of lotus stalks) with a cobra; to his left, a lotus that supports a skull cup; over his left shoulder, an antelope skin.

Tibet, Amitayus – unusual works (3)

15th century, (Tibet?), Amitayus, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with stone inlay, private collection, photo by Polyauction.

A Malla-style masterpiece inlaid with a mixture of medium-size round and square turquoise and coral cabochons. The extremities of the ribbons of the buddha’s crown form jewelled tendrils against his ears – leaving no room for earrings. His dhoti is decorated with a discreet floral pattern and heavily overlaid with beaded seams and jewelled leaves, the end is gathered under his ankles and forms a ‘raining jewel’ that goes over the top of the seat.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Amitayus, gilt bronze with silver and stone inlay, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

Are rare image of a buddha with a crowned buddha appearance (wearing a sanghati and a crown, and no jewellery), with a long-life vase in his hands.

15th century, Central Tibet, Amitayus, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, attributed to Sonam Gyaltsen, private collection, photo by Bonhams, on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/61762.

This masterpiece is thought to have been made around 1430-1440 at the Sonam Gyaltsen workshop. Amitayus wears a fine Chinese silk garment with an embroidered hem, short enough to display his stone-inlaid anklets.

The unusual feature is the effigy of White Tara on top of his long-life vase.

Circa 16th century, Tibet, Amitayus, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by F. Gousset for aaoarts .

Occasionally we come across a sculpture of Amitayus with a half-vajra finial on his chignon. The above wears a low crown with kirtimukha at the front and fan-shaped side bows. The broad hem of his garment is incised with a rice grain motif, the extremity is gathered in a swallow tail shape under his ankles.

14th century, Tibet, Amitayus (labelled ‘Amitabha’), bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

The thin face and slanted eyes are most unusual for this brass work, otherwise typical of the country and period, including the scarf forming an arch around him from neck to knees.

17th century, Tibet, Amitayus, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Cambi Casa d’Aste https://www.cambiaste.com/uk/auction-0150/gilt-bronze-amitayus-sitting-on-a-lotus-flower-2.asp.

A Sino-Tibetan style figure with his hair gathered in a double bun except for a few long strands of hair falling over his shoulders and his arms – no crown. He wears a flat incised scarf forming loops around his elbows, a fine silk dhoti with an embroidered hem, beaded jewellery including anklets.

17th century, Tibet, Amitayus, bronze with copper and silver inlay, private collection, photo by Cambi Casa d’Aste https://www.cambiaste.com/uk/auction-0210-2/a-gilt-bronze-amitayus-figure-tibet-17th-cen-2.asp.

For this buddha’s dhoti the caster mixed copper and silver-inlaid dots, typical of the much earlier Indian Pala period, together with an incised floral pattern.

He wears a Chinese-style shawl and upward flowing scarf.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Amitayus, silver with turquoise and coral inlay, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

 

Tibet, Hayagriva alone (5)

16th century, Tibet, Hayagriva, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with stones and pigment, private collection, photo by Nagel https://veryimportantlot.com/en/lot/view/fire-gilt-bronze-of-the-hayagriva-83426.

Circa 17th century, Tibet, Hayagriva (labelled ‘Mahakala’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Dreweattshttps://www.invaluable.com/auction-lot/a-gilt-bronze-figure-of-the-dharmapala-mahakala-33-c-6c347b182c .

Black Hayagriva, identified by the horse’s head in his hair, adorned with snakes, his right hand wielding a vajra tipped sword, the other doing a threatening gesture. This form always has one head with three eye, two arms and two legs, and may be accompanied by his consort.

Circa 18th century, Tibet (or Sino-Tibetan?), Hayagriva, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts on  http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html .

Red Hayagriva without his consort, holding a vajra sceptre in his right hand and doing a threatening gesture with the other.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Hayagriva, Secret Accomplishment, copper alloy (on a modern lotus base), private collection, photo by Bonhams https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/25115/lot/184/.

Red Hayagriva alone, with three heads, six hands holding various implements, eight legs treading on (missing) nagas.

18th century, Tibet (or Tibeto-Chinese?), Hayagriva, (parcel-)gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Jacques How Choong https://issuu.com/fbconsulting/docs/e-cataloguejacques2015_25_5_s.

On this Chinese-style example we can see three neighing horses’ heads in his headdress. His upper right hand wields a vajra sceptre, the upper left one does a gesture to ward off evil, the middle hands normally hold a ritual staff and a spear but here they display a snare. The lower right hand holds the handle of a broken implement and the left one shows a lasso of intestines.

Circa 18th century, Tibet, Hayagriva, gilt bronze (copper alloy with pigment), private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html.

15th century, Tibet, Hayagriva, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Christie’shttps://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/statue-de-hayagriva-en-bronze-tibet-xveme-6185340-details.aspx .

Red Hayagriva in his “very secret accomplishment form”. He stands on two victims, in embrace with his consort, who holds a skull cup and a bud. He has 3 heads with 3 eyes, 2 wings, 6 arms. His main hands hold a skull cup and a flower (a lotus bud in this case).

His upper hands hold a human hide stretched across his back, a sword and a (broken) elephant goad. His middle hands hold a noose and a (broken) club.

She wears a leopard skin loin cloth topped with a bone apron, he wears a tiger skin, an elephant skin and a belt with severed heads, they are both adorned with a five-skull crown and snakes.

 

Tibet, Yamantaka (3)

Yamantaka is a generic term including three entities: Black Yamari, Red Yamari, Vajrabhairava.

14th century, Tibet, Krishna Yamari, copper alloy with red pigment, private collection, photo by Hollywood Galleries on asianart.com https://hollywood-galleries.com/krishna-yamari-黑閻魔敵.

The three-head and six-hand form of Krishna (black) Yamari  without his consort normally has two legs, on this rare sculpture he has four. In his right hands he holds a dead body, an axe and a knife. His other attributes vary depending on the school of buddhism and the country and may include a noose, a wheel, a vajra sceptre and/or a staff or a club, a pestle.

Circa 14th century, Tibet, Yamari, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html.

Equally rare is this Yamari brandishing a stick topped with two skulls and a severed head like a khatvanga (long ritual staff). The threatening gesture and noose in his left hand identify him as the one-head and two-hand Krishna Yamari, who normally has a human face and stands on a male buffalo crushing a victim.

15th century, Tibet, Rakta Yamari, gilt copper and pigment, copper pedestal, private collection, photo by Hanhai Auction http://hanhaiauction.com/en/catalogue/5/lot-desc.

Usually in embrace with his consort, Rakta (red) Yamari either holds a staff with a human head or a flaying knife in his right hand, a skull cup in the other. The couple stands on a prostrate bull, sometime with a corpse on it. He wears a tiger skin loin cloth and a garland of severed heads, she wears bone apron and a garland of skull.

15th century, Tibet, Yamatanka, gilt bronze with turquoise and pigments, private collection, photo by Polyauction .

Vajrabhairava, the ithyphallic buffalo-headed form of Yamantaka, may be alone and have one head and two hands, in which he holds a flaying knife and a skull cup. He has three eyes, orange flaming hair, bared fangs, a curled tongue, and wears a five-skull crown, bone ornaments and a garland of severed heads.

The above has long strands of hair falling over his shoulders and a long snake worn as a sacred thread.

15th century, Tibet, Vajrabhairava, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with pigment, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

An extremely rare sculpture of Vajrabhairava with three heads, one buffalo and two human ones, six arms and two legs. His main hands hold a flaying knife and skull cup, the middle ones hold a drum and a tridanda (trident made of lotus stalks), the upper ones are held as if to stretch an elephant hide, now missing, across his back.

Unlabelled (circa 15th century, Tibet, Vajrabhairava, brass with cold gold and pigments), private collection, item 3218 on Himalayan Art Resources, photo by Hanhai Auction.

The popular 9-head, and 34-hand form, a buffalo head as his main head, holding a flaying knife, a skull cup, peaceful and wrathful implements, his sixteen legs treading on animals and gods.

16th century, Tibet, Vajrabhairava, bronze with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/statue-de-vajrabhairava-en-bronze-tibet-xveme-6185339-details.aspx.

An unusual work with nine heads and eighteen arms, the upper hands holding an elephant hide across his back, the main hands holding a flaying knife and a skull cup before his heart, the remaining left hands hold, from top to bottom, Brahma’s head, a shield, a limb, a noose, a coiled rope?, a bell, the remaining right hands holding various implements including a triratna, a staff, an arrow, an axe.

He wears a bone apron with heads dangling from it.