Mongolia, various buddhas (5)

17th century, (Mongolia), buddha, gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo on https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

This buddha, probably Shakyamuni, is seated on a tall lotus base typical of the Zanabazar school, his right hand doing the teaching gesture, the other held in meditation.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Amitabha, gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Andrew Lau for Hollywood Galleries http://https-//issuu.com/andrewlau2/docs/9-3-13_revised .

Amitabha holds a begging bowl in both hands over his lap.

18th century, Mongolia, Vairocana, gilt bronze, private collection, item 24092 on Himalayan Art Resources.

18th century, Mongolia, Vairocana, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Koller http://www.kollerauktionen.ch.

Apart from a gesture specific to him, Vairocana may be ‘turning the wheel of the law’ with his hands. The above has cold gold on his face, painted facial features and blue pigment on his hair.

The broad hem of his garment is decorated with a stippled lotus motif.

17th century, Mongolia, Bhaisajyaguru, gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk.The medicine buddha is easily identified by the arura fruit in his right hand and the medicine jar or bowl in his left hand, both kept in place by several raised fingers.

18th century, Mongolia, Ratnasambhava, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Astamangala http://www.astamangala.com/buddha-baishayaguru-or-ratnasambhava/ .

Ratnasambhava, his left hand in the meditation gesture, the other holding a gem now missing.

17th century, Mongolia, Vajradhara, gilt bronze (copper alloy), school of Zanabazar, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

 

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Mongolia, bodhisattvas

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Avalokiteshvara, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Rossi & Rossi http://rossirossi.com.

The eleven-head and eight-hand form of the bodhisattva of wisdom, his main hands pressed together in the gesture of salute, the others holding a (missing) rosary, a wheel, a lotus, a (missing) bow and a water pot, the lower right hand extended palm out to express supreme generosity.

18th century, Mongolia, Avalokiteshvara (labelled Padmapani), gilt bronze with gems, private collection, photo by Cambi Casa d’Aste .

A rare sculpture of the bodhisattva of compassion, holding a water pot in his left hand as in Gandharan art, the right hand dispelling fear…

an effigy of Akshobhya – rather than Amitabha’s – in his headdress.

The lotus pedestal he stands on is reminiscent of the Nepalese Transitional Period although with noticeably taller stamens; his tightly-fitted garment is richly embossed with a foliate design and beaded seams.

17th century, Mongolia, Avalokiteshvara, gilt bronze, at the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts in Ulaan Baatar (Mongolia).

The most common four-hand form of Avalokiteshvara, a rosary in his upper right hand, a lotus flower in the other, the main hands closed to hold a wish-granting gem before his heart, seated on a tall lotus base typical of the Zanabazar school, with a stylised visvajra and vajra motif engraved on the plinth.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Shadakshari Lokeshvara, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Rossi & Rossi https://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/aany2005/rossi2.html.

A similar image with a blue lotus in his left hand.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Maitreya, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Rossi & Rossi on https://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/aany2005/rossi3.html .

In 17th and 18th century Mongolian art, Maitreya is usually depicted standing, in his bodhisattva appearance, a stupa in his headdress, an antelope skin over his left shoulder and a water pot in his left hand, his right hand doing the teaching gesture.

Undated (circa 18th century), Mongolia, Maitreya, gilt bronze, private collection, item 19751 on Himalayan Art Resources.

A rare portrait of him in his future buddha appearance, holding a bowl with a miniature stupa in it.

18th century, Mongolia, Arapachana Manjushri, gilt metal, at the Capital Museum in Beijing (China), item 59809 on Himalayan Art Resources.

The bodhisattva of wisdom, wielding a sword and holding the stem of a blue lotus supporting the Prajnaparamita sutra topped with a pearl.

Mongolia, a few female entities (2)

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, Tara, silver with turquoise, pigments and gold, photo by Bonhams .

White Tara, adorned with separately cast gold jewellery, her small tiara, earrings, impressive necklace and the large lotus she holds inlaid with turquoise, the ribbons of the crown, her sash and her lower garment painted with pigments and cold gold. There is an eye incised on her forehead and in the palm of her hand.

18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, Tara, gilt copper alloy with turquoise and pigments, private collection, photo by Bonhams .

A Chinese-style Green Tara seated at ease, wearing a silk shawl over her shoulders, adorned with princely jewellery inlaid with small turquoise cabochons, her left hand bestowing refuge.

18th century, Mongolia, White Tara, gilt bronze (copper alloy), Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by  Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-mongolian-gilt-bronze-model-of-tara-zanabazar-5065021-details.aspx. .

18th century, Mongolia, Vajrayogini, Naropa tradition, gilt copper alloy, private collection, item 51638 on Himalayan Art Resources.

Vajrayogini in her Sarvabuddha Dakini form, drinking blood from a skull cup raised to her mouth, a flaying knife in her right hand held downwards, crushing two victims.

18th century, Mongolia, Marichi (originally published as “Green Tara” by the auction house), gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-gilt-bronze-figure-of-marichi-mongolia-5473040-details.aspx.

Seated with a leg pendant, Marichi, in her one-head and two hand form, is identified by the third eye on her forehead, the upright vajra sceptre against her heart and the miniature ashoka tree in front of her. Her long dhoti is held in place with a jewelled belt and there is a thin pleated sash across her left breast.

 

 

 

Mongolia, a few portraits (3)

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Gelugpa hierarch, gilt bronze (copper alloy), Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/lot.539.html/2017/important-chinese-art-n09662.

Dressed in sumptuous silk garments that cover his feet, seated on a lotus base with a narrow plinth, large overlapping petals linked with beading, and tall stamens, this lama holds a long-life vase in his hands.

Undated, Mongolia, lama, gilt metal, private collection, item 32263 on Himalayan Art Resources.

This one holds a bowl and the stem of lotuses that support a vajra sceptre and bell.

18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2013/arts-asie-pf1317/lot.33.html.Richly incised square cushions covered with a blanket are often used in 18th century Mongolian art.

18th century, Mongolia, Yeshe Dorje (Zanabazar), gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

A young Zanabazar seated on a blanket over brocaded cushions, holding vajra sceptre and bell.

18th century, Mongolia, gilt metal, Gelug lama Gyaltsab Je, at the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, item 75062 on Himalayan Art Resources.

18th century, Mongolia, gilt metal, Gelug lama, at the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, item 75060 on Himalayan Art Resources.

18th century, Mongolia, gilt metal, second Khalkha jetsun dampa, Lobzang Tenpay Donme, at the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, item 75062 on Himalayan Art Resources.

Undated, Mongolia, lama, gilt metal with cold gold and pigments, at the Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society http://www.tibetan-museum-society.org.

This personage, possibly Zanabazar himself, holds a long-life vase in his hands together with the stem of lotuses that support a vajra sceptre and bell.

18th century, Mongolia, Tsongkhapa, gilt bronze (copper alloy), Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s http://www.sothebys.com/ru/auctions/ecatalogue/2010/asian-art-pf1016/lot.274.html.

Tsongkhapa, founder of the Gelugpa order, is depicted with a bowl in his left hand and doing the gesture of debate or teaching.

Undated (circa 18th century?), Mongolia, lama, gilt copper alloy, private collection, item 32262 on Himalayan Art Resources .

A similar portrait, possibly of the same lama, seated on the same type of round lotus base with very large plain petals overlapping each other.

18th century, Mongolia, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

 

 

Mongolia, Amitayus/Amitabha (6)

17th century, (Mongolia), Amitayus, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

Particularly popular in Mongolia, Amitayus, long-life deity and aspect of Amitabha with a bodhisattva appearance, holds a long-life vase with both hands. He is seated on a tall double lotus base associated with Zanabazar and his school.

17th century, Mongolia, Amitayus, gilt bronze (copper alloy), school of Zanabazar, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk/en/buy-and-sell/auctions/lot-listings/122/details/19116/?currencyType=USD

As we have seen in previous posts, Zanabazar himself adorned his figures with very detailed and delicate accessories. His followers simplified greatly the design of the jewellery and crown. The lower part of the lotus base is often decorated with a chased lotus pattern.

17th century, Mongolia, Amitayus (labelled ‘bodhisattva’) gilt bronze (copper alloy), school of Zanabazar, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com.

Undated (circa 17th century), Mongolia, Amitayus, gilt copper alloy with pigments, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/8704.

Undated (17th century?), Mongolia, Amitayus, gilt copper alloy, private collection, item 32279 on Himalayan Art Resources .

18th century, Mongolia, Amitayus, gilt copper alloy, private collection, item 12979 on Himalayan Art Resources.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Amitayus, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com.

This Chinese-style Amitayus wears a floral necklace and has a tall lotus and jewel finial on his three-tier hair bun. Some long strands of hair are split from the rest and form a curl over his arms. There is no urna on his forehead.

18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, Amitayus, (parcel-gilt) copper repoussé with glass inlay and pigments, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s https://www.sothebys.com.

The Dolonnor area is famous for its copper repoussé works. The above wears ornate accessories painted with cold gold and inlaid with glass cabochons, some possibly at a later date.

18th century, Mongolia, Amitabha, gilt copper alloy, school of Zanabazar, private collection, photo by Bonhams https://www.bonhams.com.

Undated, Mongolia, Amitabha or Shakyamuni, gilt metal, private collection, item 32272 on Himalayan Art Resources.

Undated (circa 17th century), Mongolia, Amitabha, gilt metal, private collection, item 24307 on Himalayan Art Resources.

Mongolia, wrathful forms (7)

17th century, Mongolia, Vajrapani, gilt bronze (copper alloy) and pigment, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk/en/buy-and-sell/auctions/lot-listings/122/details/19118/?currencyType=USD.

Vajrapani, in his canda form, clad in a tiger skin loin cloth, wields a vajra sceptre in his right hand and does a gesture to ward off evil. There may have been a lasso in his left hand.

Undated, Mongolia, Vajrapani, copper alloy with cold gold and pigments, at the Choijin Temple in Ulaan Baatar, photo by Daniel Waugh on https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/museums/choijin/choijin.html

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Vajrabhairava, gilt metal alloy, at the Rubin Museum of Art in New York (USA).

Vajrabhairava with eight heads plus Manjushri’s at the top, in embrace with Vajravetali, clutching wrathful and peaceful implements in his 34 hands, the main ones holding a flaying knife and a skull cup, his 16 feet trampling gods and animals, now missing. She has a leg around his waist and holds a flaying knife and a skull cup.

18th century, Mongolia, Vaishravana, gilt bronze and green paint, private collection photo by Koller https://www.kollerauktionen.ch.

Wealth deity, worldly protector, guardian king, meditational deity and king of the yakshas, Vaishravana always has an angry countenance and usually wears a Mongolian armour and boots on late works. He has a jewel-spitting mongoose under his left arm, and a (missing) victory banner or parasol in his right hand. He often sits on a snow lion.

18th century, Mongolia, Chakrasamvara and Vajravarahi, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

Samvara, identified by the visvajra and crescent moon in his headdress, stands in embrace with Vajravarahi, who holds a flaying knife and a skull cup. They tread on Kalaratri and Bhairava, who represent ignorance and ego.

18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, unidentifed (labelled Pandara), parcel-gilt bronze, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art (USA).

This (apparently male) wrathful character holds a flaying knife and a skull cup filled with blood. The crown, princely jewellery and tight-fitting dhoti are painted with cold gold.

 

Mongolia, Shakyamuni (4)

17th century, (Mongolia), Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

17th century, (Mongolia), Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

On these two images the historical buddha is seated on a tall lotus base typical of the Zanabazar school, holding a begging bowl in his left hand and ‘calling Earth to witness’ with the other. His robe is decorated with a broad incised border, and a piece of the garment is folded elegantly in a swallow tail shape over his left shoulder while an extremity of the cloth forms an elegant triangular shape on the other side.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Shakyamuni, parcel-gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Cambi Casa d’Aste https://www.cambiaste.com.

Parcel-gilt Mongolian works are rare. In this instance, the gilding has been applied to the garments of the buddha and the lotus base while the hair and facial features have been painted with pigments.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com.

A variant, with both hands supporting the bowl (only the wheels on the sole of his feet distinguish him from Amitabha).

17th century, (Mongolia), Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Polyauction.

The artist who created this work was inspired by the style of Zanabazar but the end result is quite different, especially the lotus base and the body proportions.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt copper alloy, school of Zanabazar, private collection, photo by Christie’s https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-gilt-bronze-figure-of-buddha-mongolia-5977946-details.aspx.

A different seat, with flat broad petals facing each other, a row of incised lotuses and a row of beading above the plinth.

Early 18th century, Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Galerie Hioco on asianart.com http://www.asianart.com/hioco.

Late 18th century, Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

18th century, Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s https://www.sothebys.com.

17th century, (Mongolia), Shakyamuni, gilt bronze and blue pigment, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

Another lotus base typical of Mongolian art, consisting in a single large lotus flower, with stamens.

18th century, Mongolia, Amitabha or Shakyamuni (labelled ‘buddha’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Polyauction https://www.polyauction.com.hk/en/buy-and-sell/auctions/lot-listings/56/details/7656/?currencyType=USD.

A variant, with a thinner and taller plinth, scallop-shaped petals overlapping each other, the upper ones interleaved with semi-circular beading, tall stamens.

18th century Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt copper repoussé with stone inlay, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s https://www.sothebys.com.

The face of this buddha shows traces of cold  gold applied to the un-gilt head, a common practice in Mongolia.

18th century Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s https://www.sothebys.com.