18th century, Mongolia, Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s, sale 7581.
A Zanabazar-style sculpture of Yellow Jambhala, his right foot on a gem coming out of a vase attached to the base, a citron in his right hand above his knee, a mongoose disgorging jewels (onto a small table atop a lotus) in the other. He wears a long dhoti, a celestial scarf, a five-leaf crown and princely jewellery.
18th century, Mongolia, Jambhala, gilt copper alloy, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo on Castor Hara .
Here the mongoose disgorges the gems into a bowl and Jambhala’s right foot rests on a conch shell placed on a vase. The design of the lotus base is different from the first one yet equally representative of 17th and 18th century metal sculptures from Mongolia.
18th century, Mongolia, White Jambhala, gilt metal, private collection, photon on Himalayan Art Resources HAR .
Seated sideways on a dragon, this White Jambhala likely held a stick or a trident in his right hand and a club tipped with a jewel in his left hand, although on some paintings the order of the attributes is reversed.
14th century (or later?), Mongolia (or Tibet?), Jambhala, copper alloy, at the Zanabazar Museum in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia).
The style recalls 13th-14th century Tibetan works representing Jambhala and there is nothing at first sight to indicate that this was made in Mongolia, except perhaps for the shape of the arms.
18th century, Mongolia, Kubera, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Koller, sale 181AS.
Rarely seen in Himalayan sculpture, Kubera, lord of wealth, guardian deity and king of the yakshas, may also hold a mongoose in his left hand and a pomegranate or a money bag in the other.
Undated (17th or 18th century), Mongolia, Begtse Chen, gilt metal, Zanabazar school, photo on HAR.
Particularly worshipped in Mongolia, the ‘great coat of mail’ is a protector of horses and a guardian of the faith who brandishes a sword (normally with a scorpion hilt) in his right hand and holds the heart of an enemy in the other, standing in a warrior-like pose on two victims (lying on horses in this case). Apart from his armour, he wears a five-skull crown and a garland of severed heads, thick felt boots and sometimes a celestial scarf.
18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, Begtse Chen, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Hollywood Galleries.
The same deity in the Dolonnor style.
18th century, Mongolia or Eastern Tibet, Hayagriva, cast and repoussé metal with pigments, private collection, photo on Skinner .
18th century, Mongolia (labelled Tibet), Hayagriva, gilt bronze, at the San Diego Museum of Art (USA).
Hayagriva with 3 heads, each with three eyes and a neighing horse’s head in his hair, 6 arms and 6 legs, treading on a bed of nagas, holding a flaming sword and a lasso of intestines in his lower hands, the other attributes were probably a spear, a ritual staff, a vajra sceptre, the remaining hand simply does a wrathful gesture. The use of parcel-gilding and the flaming hair that stands up straight on his head are recurrent features on works made in the are of Dolonnor, along with the Chinese-style pointed fingers and toes and the way his tiger skin loin cloth is worn with the tail at the front.
18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor style, Achala, (parcel-)gilt bronze with turquoise, lapis lazuli and coral inlay, private collection, photo on Hollywood Galleries
Achala is identified by his flaming sword and the position of his left arm, the lasso now missing from his left hand. Instead of red flaming hair he has a two-tier hair bun dyed with blue pigment and topped with a finial.
18th century, Mongolia, Yama Dharmaraja, gilt metal, at the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, photo on HAR
Yama and Yami atop a prostrated buffalo crushing a human, she holds a skull cup and a flaying knife, he holds a (missing) skull-tipped club and a lasso.
18th century, Mongolia, Dorje Drakden, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 101 China 1.
This archaic form of Pehar (who became his chief minister) has one face and two hands in which he holds a trident (more like a lance here) and a lasso; he stands on a corpse. Another victim appears to hang from the lotus pedestal.