Mongolia, a few portraits (4)

17th century, Mongolia, Zanabazar, gilt metal, private collection, photo on Da Cang

Zanabazar is seated with his legs locked and his hands crossed over his heart, clutching a vajra sceptre and a bell. A similar portrait  was published in a previous post (Himalayan Art Resources, item 8101).

18th century, Mongolia, 2nd bogdo gegen lama, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Andrew Lau on Bodhi Path

His successor holds the bell close to his left hip and the vajra sceptre pointing to his heart.

18th century, Mongolia, panchen lama, gilt copper (alloy), private collection, photo on Hanhai Auction

Seated on an ovoid base with large overlapping petals going upwards, this teacher does the gesture of debate with his right hand and holds a bowl in the other.

He wears a patched robe richly incised with a floral motif.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, lama, gilt bronze, Zanabazar style, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

Here there is a manuscript in the teacher’s left hand.

18th century, Mongolia, Taranatha, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo on Hanhai Auction.

This lama, from the Jonang school of Tibetan buddhism, holds a long-life vase in both hands. See biographical notes on Treasury of Lives

17th century, Mongolia, arhat Rahula, gilt bronze, at the Rubin Museum of Art in New York (USA).

18th century, Mongolia, arhat, gilt bronze, at the National Gallery in Prague (Czech Republic), photo on HAR

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Mongolia, Jambhala and others

18th century, Mongolia, Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s, sale 7581.

A Zanabazar-style sculpture of Yellow Jambhala, his right foot on a gem coming out of a vase attached to the base, a citron in his right hand above his knee, a mongoose disgorging jewels (onto a small table atop a lotus) in the other. He wears a long dhoti, a celestial scarf, a five-leaf crown and princely jewellery.

18th century, Mongolia, Jambhala, gilt copper alloy, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo on Castor Hara .

Here the mongoose disgorges the gems into a bowl and Jambhala’s right foot rests on a conch shell placed on a vase. The design of the lotus base is different from the first one yet equally representative of 17th and 18th century metal sculptures from Mongolia.

18th century, Mongolia, White Jambhala, gilt metal, private collection, photon on Himalayan Art Resources HAR .

Seated sideways on a dragon, this White Jambhala likely held a stick or a trident in his right hand and a club tipped with a jewel in his left hand, although on some paintings the order of the attributes is reversed.

14th century, Mongolia, Jambhala holding a fruit in his right hand and a mongoose spewing jewels out in the other, copper alloy, at the Zanabazar Museum

14th century (or later?), Mongolia (or Tibet?), Jambhala, copper alloy, at the Zanabazar Museum in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia).

The style recalls 13th-14th century Tibetan works representing Jambhala and there is nothing at first sight to indicate that this was made in Mongolia, except perhaps for the shape of the arms.

18th century, Mongolia, Kubera, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Koller, sale 181AS.

Rarely seen in Himalayan sculpture, Kubera, lord of wealth, guardian deity and king of the yakshas, may also hold a mongoose in his left hand and a pomegranate or a money bag in the other.

Undated (17th or 18th century), Mongolia, Begtse Chen, gilt metal, Zanabazar school, photo on HAR.

Particularly worshipped in Mongolia, the ‘great coat of mail’ is a protector of horses and a guardian of the faith who brandishes a sword (normally with a scorpion hilt) in his right hand and holds the heart of an enemy in the other, standing in a warrior-like pose on two victims (lying on horses in this case). Apart from his armour, he wears a five-skull crown and a garland of severed heads, thick felt boots and sometimes a celestial scarf.

18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor, Begtse Chen, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Hollywood Galleries.

The same deity in the Dolonnor style.

18th century, Mongolia or Eastern Tibet, Hayagriva, cast and repoussé metal with pigments, private collection, photo on Skinner .

18th century, Mongolia (labelled Tibet), Hayagriva, gilt bronze, at the San Diego Museum of Art (USA).

Hayagriva with 3 heads, each with three eyes and a neighing horse’s head in his hair, 6 arms and 6 legs, treading on a bed of nagas, holding a flaming sword and a lasso of intestines in his lower hands, the other attributes were probably a spear, a ritual staff, a vajra sceptre, the remaining hand simply does a wrathful gesture. The use of parcel-gilding and the flaming hair that stands up straight on his head are recurrent features on works made in the are of Dolonnor, along with the Chinese-style pointed fingers and toes and the way his tiger skin loin cloth is worn with the tail at the front.

18th century, Mongolia, Dolonnor style, Achala, (parcel-)gilt bronze with turquoise, lapis lazuli and coral inlay, private collection, photo on Hollywood Galleries

Achala is identified by his flaming sword and the position of his left arm, the lasso now missing from his left hand. Instead of red flaming hair he has a two-tier hair bun dyed with blue pigment and topped with a finial.

18th century, Mongolia, Yama Dharmaraja, gilt metal, at the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, photo on HAR

Yama and Yami atop a prostrated buffalo crushing a human, she holds a skull cup and a flaying knife, he holds a (missing) skull-tipped club and a lasso.

18th century, Mongolia, Dorje Drakden, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 101 China 1.

This archaic form of Pehar (who became his chief minister) has one face and two hands in which he holds a trident (more like a lance here) and a lasso; he stands on a corpse. Another victim appears to hang from the lotus pedestal.

Mongolia, a few female entities (3)

 

Circa 18th century, Mongolia, Magzor Gyalmo, gilt bronze with pigment, whereabouts unspecified, photo on gg-art.com .

Magzor Gyalmo, seated sideways on the hide of her dead son, her kiang crossing a sea of blood full of corpses. She has a sun disc over her navel, magic weapons attached to her mount with a long snake (a bag of diseases, red curses, a pair of dice at the front, a ball of variegated wool at the back), her staff and skull cup missing from her hands.

15th-16th century, Tibet (labelled ‘Mongolia’ on Himalayan Art Resources), dakini, parcel-gilt silver with stone inlay, on a gilt metal base, private collection, photo by Christie’s, sale 17347.

Possibly a retinue figure from a Chakrasamvara set, she has four hands in which she holds a flaying knife and a skull cup, a drum and a ritual staff. Whereas parcel-gilt silver is almost absent from Tibetan art, we have seen quite a few parcel-gilt silver sculptures from Mongolia. There is a page on Inner Mongolia parcel-gilt works on HAR-Mongolia .

18th century, Mongolia, Ushnishavijaya, parcel-gilt silver with turquoise inlay, gilt metal base, private collection, photo by Hanhai Auction on HAR.

18th century, Mongolia, Mahapratisara, gilt metal, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources, item 32769.

Pratisara, one of the five  Panksha Raksha deities, in her one-head and two-arm form, wielding a sword in her right hand and holding an eight-spoke wheel before her heart in the other. She may stand with her feet apart or squat on Ganapati.

18th century, Mongolia, Sitatapatra, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Rossi&Rossi.

Sitatapatra in her one-head and two-hand form, holding a (missing) parasol in her left hand and a (missing) wheel in the other.

Early 18th century, Mongolia, Sitatapatra, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 703.

A rare image of a female deity with three-heads and various buddhas in her headdress, including Amitabha at the top. She holds a hook and a lasso in one hand, a flower in the other. The three-head form of Sitatapatra normally has eight hands, sometimes six, in which she holds a lasso, a hook, a bow, an arrow, a wheel, a vajra sceptre or a water pot, a parasol and a banner – no flower.

18th c., Mongolia, Tingi Shalzangma, gilt-bronze, 22 cm, seated on mare, holds mirror, goddess of beauty, auction-20160614-uppsalaauktion.se

18th century, Mongolia, Tingi Shalzangma, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Uppsala Auktion.

One of five long-life sisters, she holds a mirror and rides a kiang or a mare. On paintings she has a blue body.

Mongolia, Tara

Undated (probably 17th century, Zanabazar school), Mongolia, Tara, (gilt bronze and pigment), private collection, photo on HAR .

Green Tara is seated on a tall double-lotus base, wearing elaborate foliate earrings, a matching choker and delicate beaded accessories, a thin sash and a celestial scarf, a long lower garment with an embroidered hem. Her face is painted with cold cold and pigments, her hair is dyed with lapis lazuli powder.

Early 18th century, Mongolia, Tara, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, auction 703.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Tara, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Andrew Lau on Hollywood Galleries .

This green Tara has an effigy of Amitabha in her headdress.

18th century, Inner Mongolia, Tara, gilt bronze and repoussé metal, private collection, photo on Christie’s.

Late 18th century, Inner Mongolia or China, Tara, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s, as before.

18th century, Mongolia, Tara, silver, turquoise, gilt metal, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources, item 24194.

18th-19th c., Mongolia, Tra, (parcel-)gilt bronze rep.+turq.+paint, 25,5 cm, AU0832 Australia Sotheby's

Circa 1800, Mongolia, Tara, (parcel-)gilt bronze repoussé with turquoise inlay and paint, private collection, photo on Sotheby’s – Australia

White Tara, seated with her legs locked, has an eye on her forehead, on the palm of her hands and the sole of her feet.

Mongolia, various buddhas (6)

Undated (17th-18th century?), Mongolia, Shakyamuni, gilt bronze (with cold gold and pigments), private collection, photo by Max Marco Brothers on Max Marco .

The buddha is seated on a Zanabazar-style lotus base, with an alms bowl in his hands. The hem of his robe is decorated with a chased floral pattern, one extremity of the garment is pleated along the border across his chest and on the other side, along his arm, forming a particularly long swallow tail shape, a feature we have seen a couple of times before on Zanabazar style works dated 17th to 18th century.

Undated, Mongolia, Bhaisajyaguru (labelled ‘Shakyamuni’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Max Marco Brothers, as before.

Undated (18th century?), Mongolia, medicine buddha, gilt metal, private collection, photo on  HAR.

Probably 18th century, Mongolia, Bhaisajyaguru (labelled ‘Buddha’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Doyle Auctions on Doyle.

Seated with his legs locked, the main medicine buddha holds an arura fruit  in his right hand and a bowl in the other.

Undated (17th or 18th century), Mongolia, Amitabha, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Holly Auctions on HAR .

18th century, Mongolia, Amitabha, gilt metal, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources, item 7866.

Amitabha holds a large alms bowl in both hands.

18th century, Mongolia, Akshobhya (labelled ‘Shakyamuni’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 101 China 1.

Akshobhya,  calling Earth to witness with his right hand and holding an upright vajra sceptre in his left hand.

Unlabelled (Mongolia, Vairocana?, gilt copper alloy), private collection, photo on HAR

Undated (circa 18th century), Mongolia, Vajradhara, gilt bronze, Zanabazar style, private collection, photo on Sotheby’s – Australia.

Vajradhara, adorned with princely accessories, holds a vajra sceptre and a bell in his hands crossed over his heart. The way his celestial scarf falls over the sides of the seat is an unusual feature that we saw on a few sculptures dated late 17th and 18th century.

18th c., Mongolia, Shakyamuni crowned?, gilt bronze+rep. crown, 35 cm, prob. Dolonnor, Qahar region, lab. buddha, cloud cape, AU0826 Australia Sotheby's

18th century, Mongolia, probably Dolonnor, Buddha, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s as before.

Inner Mongolia sculptures are very different from the previous Zanabazar school works. The lotus base is different and the accessories are made of gilt copper repoussé.

His monkish garb, complemented by a delicate cloud-shaped cape, and his short hair curls distinguish identify him as the historical buddha in his crowned aspect, adorned with a copper repoussé crown and a necklace (no armbands, bracelets and anklets).

Mongolia, various buddhas (5)

17th century, (Mongolia), buddha, gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo on https://www.polyauction.com.hk.

This buddha, probably Shakyamuni, is seated on a tall lotus base typical of the Zanabazar school, his right hand doing the teaching gesture, the other held in meditation.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Amitabha, gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Andrew Lau for Hollywood Galleries

Amitabha holds a begging bowl in both hands over his lap.

18th century, Mongolia, Vairocana, gilt bronze, private collection, item 24092 on Himalayan Art Resources.

18th century, Mongolia, Vairocana, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Koller

Apart from a gesture specific to him, Vairocana may be ‘turning the wheel of the law’ with his hands. The above has cold gold on his face, painted facial features and blue pigment on his hair.

The broad hem of his garment is decorated with a stippled lotus motif.

17th century, Mongolia, Bhaisajyaguru, gilt bronze, Zanabazar school, private collection, photo by Polyauction

The medicine buddha is easily identified by the arura fruit in his right hand and the medicine jar or bowl in his left hand, both kept in place by several raised fingers.

18th c., Mongolia, Ratnasambhava, 10,5 cm, lab. Bhaisahyaguru or R., Astamangala

18th century, Mongolia, Ratnasambhava or Bhaisajyaguru, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo on Astamangala

17th century, Mongolia, Vajradhara, gilt bronze (copper alloy), school of Zanabazar, private collection, photo by Polyauction as before.

 

Mongolia, bodhisattvas

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Avalokiteshvara, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Rossi & Rossi

The eleven-head and eight-hand form of the bodhisattva of wisdom, his main hands pressed together in the gesture of salute, the others holding a (missing) rosary, a wheel, a lotus, a (missing) bow and a water pot, the lower right hand extended palm out to express supreme generosity.

18th c. late, Mongolia, (Avalokiteshvara) Padmapani, gilt bronze, 26 cm, holds waterpot, akshobhya in crown, Zan. school, Cambiaste

18th century, Mongolia, Avalokiteshvara (labelled Padmapani), gilt bronze with gems, private collection, photo by Cambi Casa d’Aste .

A rare sculpture of the bodhisattva of compassion, holding a water pot in his left hand as in Gandharan art, the right hand dispelling fear…

an effigy of Akshobhya – rather than Amitabha’s – in his headdress.

The lotus pedestal he stands on is reminiscent of the Nepalese Transitional Period although with noticeably taller stamens; his tightly-fitted garment is richly embossed with a foliate design and beaded seams.

17th century, Mongolia, Avalokiteshvara, gilt bronze, at the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts in Ulaan Baatar (Mongolia).

The most common four-hand form of Avalokiteshvara, a rosary in his upper right hand, a lotus flower in the other, the main hands closed to hold a wish-granting gem before his heart, seated on a tall lotus base typical of the Zanabazar school, with a stylised visvajra and vajra motif engraved on the plinth.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Shadakshari Lokeshvara, gilt copper, private collection, photo on Rossi & Rossi

A similar image with a blue lotus in his left hand.

17th-18th century, Mongolia, Maitreya, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Rossi & Rossi on Asian Art .

In 17th and 18th century Mongolian art, Maitreya is usually depicted standing, in his bodhisattva appearance, a stupa in his headdress, an antelope skin over his left shoulder and a water pot in his left hand, his right hand doing the teaching gesture.

Undated (circa 18th century), Mongolia, Maitreya, gilt bronze, private collection, item 19751 on Himalayan Art Resources.

A rare portrait of him in his future buddha appearance, holding a bowl with a miniature stupa in it.

18th century, Mongolia, Arapachana Manjushri, gilt metal, at the Capital Museum in Beijing (China), item 59809 on Himalayan Art Resources.

The bodhisattva of wisdom, wielding a sword and holding the stem of a blue lotus supporting the Prajnaparamita sutra topped with a pearl.