The symbolic hand gestures displayed by deities can help us identify them. In most descriptions from auction houses, museums and books they are referred to as mudras although their is some controversy as to whether the term is used appropriately.
One particular deity may display different gestures at the same time and several types of gestures may be associated with a particular deity. The gestures normally displayed by a particular deity may differ from one region to the other. Although some are normally done with the right or the left hand, this may vary too (i.e. the photo is not necessarily the wrong way round). Deities with a peaceful appearance may do a gesture normally associated with a wrathful deity and vice-versa.
The gesture of meditation (dhyana)
It may be displayed by the left hand only.
Dhyana mudra with both hands.
or by both hands. For instance, Amitabha always displays it with both hands to hold a begging bowl. Amitayus always does it to hold a vase of longevity (as above). Vairocana in his four-head and two-hand form does it to hold an attribute, wheel of the Law or double thunderbolt. Shakyamuni sometimes display this gesture to hold a begging bowl.
The gesture of calling Earth to witness (bhumisparsha)
The vast majority of sculptures depicting Shakyamuni seated have him doing this gesture.
It is normally done with the right hand and in conjunction with the meditation gesture. Buddha Akshobhya always does these two gestures.
The gesture of supreme generosity (varada)
Varada right hand.
This gesture is often done with the right hand but may it be done with the other, especially in the case of deities with multiple pairs of hands.
There may be an incised or embossed symbol in the palm of the hand, such as an eye in the case of White Tara, a lotus in the case of Avalokiteshvara, a wheel in the case of Shakyamuni, a jewel in the case of Ratnasambhava, etc.
The fear-allaying or blessing gesture (abhaya)
It is displayed by various buddhas and bodhisattvas (especially Avalokiteshvara in his padmapani form), usually with the right hand. The palm is out and may be incised or embossed with a symbol such as the diamond above.
Buddha Amoghasiddhi usually does it with his right hand while doing the meditation gesture with the other.
The gesture of discussion or debate (vitarka)
It may be displayed by either hand individually or by both hands together.
Not to be confused with the gesture used to hold a rosary or a lotus, in which the middle finger touches the thumb, as above. Such gesture is called ‘shuni’ and is associated with bestowing patience.
This buddha, possibly one of the 35 confession buddhas, does this gesture of patience with both hands, without holding anything in them.
The ‘turning the wheel of the Law’ gesture (dharmacakra)
This consists in the right hand doing the vitarka mudra at heart level and the other hand doing the same gesture next to it or in front of it, with the palm inwards. Apart from Shakyamuni, other peaceful deities use it (for instance Maitreya, when seated).
One variant consists in the right hand with the ring finger touching the thumb and the left hand being placed below, palm out. Other variants show the forefinger of the right hand touching a finger of the left hand, which may be the forefinger, the middle finger or the little finger.
The gesture of ‘prayer’ (anjali)
It is displayed by Shadakshari Lokeshvara and other forms of Avalokiteshvara, amongst others. In ‘Mudra in Pan-Asian Buddhism – Part I’, John Huntington reminds us that in Asia it is a gesture of deferential greeting, not prayer.
The gesture to ward off evil (karana)
It is displayed by many deities with a wrathful appearance. the forefinger and the little finger are erect like yak horns.
A similar gesture but with the tip of the index meeting the thumb is used when the deity holds a lasso wound around the left hand.
The gesture of protection or refuge (kartari)
Green Tara very often does this gesture with her left hand at heart level to bestow refuge. It is similar to the previous gesture but this time it is the tip of the ring finger that presses the thumb.
The stem of a lotus usually passes through her hand.
The gesture to subdue demons (bhutadamara)
It is displayed by a four-arm form of wrathful Vajrapani with the same name, and sometimes by Humkara (who has a specific gesture, shown further down). Perhaps for this reason, this gesture is sometimes wrongly called the Vajrahumkara mudra. The wrists are crossed and the hands held palm out, with the little fingers linked.
The vajra embrace gesture (vajrahumkara)
This is the mudra displayed by buddha Vajradhara and by meditational deities who hold two thunderbolts (vajras) or a thunderbolt and a bell at heart level or across the back of their consort. The wrists are crossed and the hands are palm inwards.
The salutation gesture (buddhasramana)
It symbolises enlightenment and is also known as vandana mudra
Ushnishavijaya in her eight-hand form displays it with her top right hand, in which she usually holds a buddha seated on a lotus (especially in Tibet) or a visvajra.
The wrathful gesture (tarjani)
This threatening gesture is often used by wrathful deities such as Achala and some forms of Vajrapani, for instance.
Vasudhara, in her six-hand form, holds her top right hand at head level in a gesture accomplishing music. In yoga this is known as ardha chandra or half moon.
This gesture of supreme enlightenment is associated with buddha Vairocana in his one-head form (who occasionally does the dharmacakra mudra instead).
The forefinger of the left hand is either completely wrapped by the righthand or it is partly showing.
The historical buddha’s gesture
Shakyamuni is the only standing buddha shown with one end of his robe in his left hand.
Milarepa always holds his right hand to his ear.
Mahasiddha Virupa often raises an arm with the index finger straight, to stop the Sun in its course. The middle and ring fingers rest over the thumb.
He may do this gesture with either hand.
Exclusive to this deity, this is a defensive gesture with the little fingers interlocked and the palms out as in the bhutadamara mudra but with the forefingers erect and the thumbs folded. In some regions outside the Himalayas, Humkara’s gesture is done with the writs tightly closed.
Another gesture exclusive to this deity (but not always displayed) consists in the foregingers of the upper hands being placed on each side of his mouth.