Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (20)

13th-14th c., Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s on HAR

Yellow Jambhala is holding a tiny mongoose by the neck with his left hand and displaying a (missing) citrus fruit with the other. He sits with his right leg pendent, the foot placed on a lotus stemming from the lotus base.

13th-14th century, Tibet?, Jambhala, copper alloy with silver and copper inlay, private collection, photo on Ethereal .

On this elegant sculpture derived from the Pala-style, his right foot is placed on a pot of gems. Silver has been used for the eyes, copper for the lips, and both metals for the shorter necklace and the armbands; his long dhoti is decorated with a chased geometrical pattern. His accessories include a garland.

14th century, Tibet?, Yellow Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo by Poly Auction, sale HKS3316-2 lot 3233.

A variant, with a long-life vase below his right foot.

17th century (or earlier?), Tibet, Walking Jambhala, bronze (copper alloy) with silver-inlaid eyes and turquoise, private collection, photo on Hardt .

A rare and surprising sculpture of Jambhala in a walking pose, holding his mongoose in his left hand and a round citrus fruit or gem in the other, his right arm stretched sideways. His short dhoti is deeply engraved with a (tiger skin?) pattern. His hair is tied in a large bun, he has a beard and bushy eyebrows and wears princely jewellery, no crown.

18th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), polychrome stone, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 100 China 2.

Khasa Malla Kingdom (21)

13th-14th century, Nepal, Khasa Malla Kingdom, Avalokiteshvara, gilt copper alloy, collection of Yury Khokhlov, photo on Academia.

Avalokiteshvara in his four-arm form holds a (missing) rosary and a lotus in his upper hands, the other two are pressed together before his heart as if to hold a wish-granting gem. 

The lotus base with its plump inner petals, roundish outer ones, plain lower rim, thick beading at the top, red paint  on the surface and at the back is typical of Khasa Malla art from Western Nepal/Western Tibet. Other specific features are the knuckles delineated on the outside, the long lower garment and, therefore, the absence of shin ornaments.

13th-14th century, Nepal, Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s, see also the at the Tszshan Museum  website.

The historical buddha, in his crowned form, dressed in a monastic robe and adorned with a crown but no jewellery, his right hand touching the Earth. We saw this statue in the Nepalese section of the blog because it had not been identified as ‘Khasa Malla’.

14th century, Nepal, Khasa Malla, Shakyamuni (labelled ‘Akshobhya’), gilt copper alloy with turquoise, private collection, photo by Koller sale A163AS.

A similar depiction, also with smooth hands. We have seen other Khasa Malla figures without delineated finger joints, and some works attributed to the Kathmandu Valley are probably from the Khasa Malla kingdom, especially crowned buddhas of this sort.

14th century, Nepal, (Khasa Malla, Western Tibet?), Shakyamuni, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Poly Auction .

The large head with distinctly Tibetan facial features, the broad shoulders, sturdy limbs, delineated knuckles of this buddha are all features associated with the Khasa Malla kingdom of Western Nepal/Western Tibet. Apart form the usual rice grain pattern and dense fan-shaped pleating below the ankles, we will note the piece of fabric forming elaborate pleats and a three-pointed end over his left shoulder and, above all, the way the artist has delineated the top of the ribcage of the buddha.

14th century, Nepal, Khasa Malla Kingdom, Avalokiteshvara, silver with gilt copper, Nyingjei Lam Collection, photo here .

Avalokiteshvara in one of his four-arm forms, holding a (missing) rosary and a lotus in his upper hands, the main hands joined before his heart in the wish-granting gesture. The combination of silver and gilt copper, and the thick foliate ‘flaming’ mandorla are features specific to Khasa Malla art (within the Himalayas).

Tibet, Avalokiteshvara – standing (17)

11th or 12th century, Western Tibet, Avalokiteshvara – Padmapani, brass, private collection, photo by on jstor  

Avalokiteshvara in his ‘lotus bearer’ form, with an effigy of Amitabha in his headdress and an antelope skin on his left shoulder, dressed in a richly incised dhoti and adorned with a crown made of three triangular leaves, princely jewellery and a foliate garland typical of early Guge-style works.

Circa 13th century, Western Tibet, Guge, Padmapani (Avalokiteshvara), bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s, 1997.

Another type of crown is the tall Kashmiri-style crown, made of crescent-shaped lotus shoots supporting a floral or foliate ornament.  (see “COMPARING WORKS” > The Early Guge style and related works in the left margin of this blog).

12th century, Tibet, Lokeshvara, bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt , 23rd November 2019.

This padmapani with a thin waist and disproportionate torso holds two open lotuses in his left hand. He is adorned with Nepalese-style serpentine armbands and a sash knotted on the left, no antelope skin or buddha effigy.

12th century, Tibet, Lokeshvara, bronze with silver eyes, private collection, photo by Hardt as before, close up here.

A completely different style, reminiscent of early dwarf attendant figures leaning towards the deity they accompany. His left hand does a gesture to bestow patience, normally associated with a rosary, the right hand is not doing any particular gesture, which is unusual. The effigy of Amitabha at the front of his tall crown identifies him as Avalokiteshvara/Lokeshvara.

16th-17th century, Tibet , (Avalokiteshvara) Padmapani, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s, Arts d’Asie 11th June 2009 lot 271, Paris.

16th-17th century, Tibet , (Avalokiteshvara) Padmapani, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s, Arts d’Asie 11th June 2009 lot 271, Paris.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Avalokiteshvara, polychrome wood, private collection, photo on Sotheby’s  .

Tibet, Eleven-head Avalokiteshvara (9)

15th-16th century, Central Tibet, 11-head Avalokiteshvara, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

Through an inscription on the sculpture we know that this masterpiece was made in the Shigatse area by Sonam Gyaltsen, around 1430, for a Sakya monastery. 

Ekadasamukha Lokeshvara, with nine heads topped with Mahakala’s and Manjushri’s, and eight arms. The main hands are joined before his heart, the upper ones hold a rosary and a lotus, the middle ones hold a wheel and a (missing) bow, the lower right hand is palm out to express generosity, the left one holds a ritual water pot.

16th century, Tibet, 11-head Avalokiteshvara, soapstone, private collection, photo on De Zwaan .

18th century, Tibet, 11-head Avalokiteshvara, gilt copper, cast and repoussé, with stone inlay and pigments, private collection, photo by Koller, sale A175AS lot 112.

The bodhisattva‘s own heads are often described as three peaceful, three semi-wrathful and three wrathful ones but in Tibet they may be all peaceful.

18th century, Eastern Tibet, 11-head Avalokiteshvara, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Koller, sale A138AS lot 108.

This Chinese-style sculpture shows the wish-granting gem he holds between his main hands.

Circa 18th century, Tibet, 11-head Avalokiteshvara, polychrome wood, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 103 China 2.

15th or 16th century, Tibet, Avalokiteshvara, gilt bronze with pigments and stone inlay, private collection, photo by Pundoles.

Vishva Ishvara Lokeshvara, with eleven heads and a thousand arms, his main hands in the same position as above, the others radiating from his body and displaying an eye in each palm.

Pala India, a few yaksha figures (2)

11th-12th century, India, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s, Arts d’Asie 10th June 2015, lot 168.

Yellow Jambhala is seated with his right leg pendent, the foot placed on a vase filled with jewels, on a  lotus base decorated with unusually thick beading and four groups of three jewels below the lotus seat. As usual he holds a gem-shaped citron in his right hand and a mongoose in the other, and wears a tight-fitting lower garment, a scarf, princely jewellery and a lotus bud knop. 

11th-12th century, Eastern India, Jambhala, stone, private collection, photo by Koller, sale A191AS lot 376.

The same form of Jambhala, seated on a large pot with a lid, atop a lotus seat with scrolling vines and buds below. He grips a small fruit with his right hand while holding a mongoose that disgorges pearls. There are two celestial beings (apsaras) at the top.

12th century, Northeast India, Kubera, copper alloy, private collection, photo on Bonhams, Hong Kong (classified as Yellow Jambhala on HAR).

A very rare and interesting image of a wealth deity with a friendly yaksha appearance, holding a gem-shaped citron in his right hand like Yellow Jambhala, but with an ingot in his left hand (instead of a mongoose). According to textual sources, Kubera may hold a mace, a mongoose or a horn to hold coins in his left hand, and a hook, a pomegranate, a money bag or a mace in his right hand.

Tibet, seated Maitreya (20)

14th century, Tibet, Shakyamuni (or Maitreya), gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Nagel .

This may be Shakyamuni but such sculptures are usually understood to represent Maitreya as the buddha of the future. This singular work depicts a buddha doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture and holding a wheel or disc at the same time. He is seated with both legs pendent, his feet placed on a lotus, on a cushion decorated with visvajras, atop a stepped throne with legs shaped like inverted lotus buds and a back plate incised with scrolls. He wears a monastic robe with a stippled lotus print and a broad boarder with beaded seams, his plain lower garment showing underneath, especially over the legs.

16th-17th century, Tibet, Buddha, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo on Tajan

A similar image without the wheel or disc between his hands.

14th-15th century possibly, Tibet or Nepal, Maitreya, gilt bronze with stones and pearl inlay, private collection, photo on skinnerinc.

Maitreya in his bodhisattva appearance, seated in the same manner, his hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture, the left one holding the stem of a blue lotus topped with a ritual water pot (kundika), his chignon topped with a stupa.

16th century, Tibet, Maitreya, bronze with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo by Lempertz, sale 1146 lot 313.

Seated with his legs locked, his right hand dispelling fear, the other cupped in the meditation gesture, a combination often used to depict him either as a buddha or as a bodhisattva. There is a small water pot on the flower to his left and a stupa finial on his chignon.

18th century, Tibet, Maitreya, wood with cold gold and red lacquer, private collection, photo on Christie’s .

Tibet, Manjushri – various forms (8)

13th-14th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy with silver and turquoise inlay, photo by Elizabeth Mann, at the Seattle Art Museum (USA).

White Manjushri, seated with his legs locked, the right hand expressing supreme generosity, the other holding the stem of a lotus that supports a manuscript, the Prajnaparamita sutra, topped with a pearl.

14th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze with turquoise, gemstones and glass, private collection, photo on Galerie Zacke .

When flanked by two lotuses, White Manjushri may ‘turn the wheel of dharma‘ with his hands, and the hilt of a sword, stone-inlaid in this case, protrudes from the flower to his right (the book on the other side is missing). As pointed out by the gallery, this sculpture was probably made by a Nepalese artist for a Tibetan patron. The squarish face and lavish use of turquoise cabochons (some of them missing or replaced) certainly correspond to the Tibetan taste.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s, Arts d’Asie 10th June 2015, lot 169.

White Manjushri standing, his right hand doing the gesture of debate (vitarka mudra), not normally associated with him, the left hand holding a lotus that supports the book topped with a pearl.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Manjushri (labelled ‘Vishnu’), parcel-gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Sotheby’s

When standing and holding two lotuses  topped with the said attributes, he usually belongs to a group of eight bodhisattvas.

16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Koller, sale A165AS lot102.

Arapachana Manjushri sits with his legs locked, wielding a sword and holding  a book before his heart. On paintings he has a white body.

18th century, Tibet, Manjuvajra, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on De Zwaan .

Namasangiti Manjushri/Manjuvajra with four hands, holding a sword and a lotus topped with a book, an arrow and bow.