Tibet, Manjushri – various forms (5)

Regarding the first item below, see the new page (left-hand column of this blog) on the Ngari style and related works attributed to Western Tibet ateliers.

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, brass, at the Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum, Mumbai (India), photo on Photo Dharma

White Manjushri, standing, holding the stem of a blue lotus (utpala) that supports the Prajnaparamita manuscript, his right hand held palm out to express generosity.

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt

Instead, he may have both hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Koller, sale W249AS.

From the 13th century onwards White Manjushri is often depicted with the hilt of a sword emerging from another lotus, to his right. In such case, he is usually seated and his hands do the dharmacakra gesture.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze with stone inlay, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 736 China 3.

A singular sculpture of him seated at ease and  leaning on his right arm, the right hand holding the stem of a blue lotus that supports the hilt of a sword, the left hand holding a book at heart level.

Circa 14th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper alloy with gems and pigment, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

Vadisimha Manjushri, seated on a lion  with his legs locked, the hands turning the wheel of dharma, the lotuses that hold the hilt of a sword and a book fastened to his elbows.

11th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, bronze, Indian artist commissioned by the Guge kingdom, photo by T. Pritzker, published by Ulrich von Schroeder in 108 Buddhist Statues in Tibet.

An early example of Manjushri standing and wielding a sword, holding the stem of a lotus in his left hand that may or may not have supported a book.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Lempertz.

Both the arapachana and the sthiracakra forms of Manjushri sit in the vajra position, brandishing a sword in the right hand and holding a book in the other, close to the heart. No lotus. On paintings, the former is white and the latter is orange (saffron).

17th-18th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

A more common form, wielding a sword and holding a lotus that supports the manuscript.

13th century, Tibet, Manjuvajra, gilt copper repoussé, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

A figure with three heads and six hands, the main ones crossed over his heart palm inwards (no vajra sceptre or vajra bell visible), the upper ones holding a sword and a lotus, the middle ones holding a vajra sceptre and visvajra – not associated with Manjuvajra, who normally has a  bow and an arrow in two of his hands. He wears a helmet, princely jewellery, a scarf and long lower garment decorated with an incised motif, plus a plain one on top that stops at knee level.

15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt metal with turquoise inlay, Sonam Gyaltsen and atelier, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources

Manjuvajra Manjushri with one head and four hands, the lower ones would have held a bow and an arrow, the others hold a blue lotus and a (missing) book.

Advertisements

Tibet, Manjushri with sword (8)

Circa 12th century, Western Tibet or Ladakh, Manjushri, brass, private collection, photo on Woolley and Wallis.

Dressed in a short dhoti with a stippled motif, Manjushri, standing, brandishes a sword and holds a blue lotus that supports his book.

12th-13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy with silver and copper inlay, private collection, photo by Ravenel.

This sculpture is almost identical to a 12th-13th century brass statue of Manjushri seen in a previous post, but on this occasion the lower garment is decorated with silver and copper roundels in the Pala fashion, as well as a stippled lotus motif.

Copper inlay has also been used for his lips, the centre of the lotus, parts of his crown and parts of the book. His eyes are inlaid with silver.

11th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, (copper alloy+silver inlaid eyes), private collection, photo on HAR

Seated on a lotus atop a plinth derived from a Kashmiri design, Manjushri holds a sword and the stem of a lotus that probably supported a book. His dhoti with a deeply engraved motif is typical of works made in the ancient kingdom of Guge. He is adorned with a spectacular crown, discreet jewellery, a brahmin’s thread and a (broken) garland.

11th-12th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

Brandishing a vajra-tipped sword and holding the stem of a blue lotus that supports the Prajnaparamita sutra, he is adorned with a three-point crown, floral earrings and beaded accessories. His lower garment is much shorter on the left side and decorated with incised stripes. Compare with 11th century Manjushri

Circa 13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy, private collection, item 61934 on Himalayan Art Resources, photo by Bonhams,A rare image of Manjushri full of character with his stupa-like chignon, unusual accessories and almost invisible garment. He is seated on a lotus base with two rows of petals that don’t face each other. A tiny book is placed on the open lotus he holds in his left hand.

12th-13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper (alloy), at the Tibet Museum in Lhasa, photo by Petra Mueller on WHAV

17th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper (alloy), same as before, photo by Verena Ziegler.

Tibet, peaceful Manjushri (2)

11th-12th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with cold gold, private collection, photo on Olympia

Young Manjushri stands on a Pala-style lotus base and holds the stem of a blue lotus (utpala) topped with a book in his left hand, his right hand expresses supreme generosity.

14th-15th century?, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt metal with turquoise inlay, photo by Polyauction on HAR.

14th-15th century?, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt metal with turquoise inlay, photo by Dacang Auction on Himalayan Art Resources

Undated, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt metal+turquoise, private collection, item 74903 on Himalayan Art Resources.

14th-15th c., Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze, 14 cm, lab. Vajradhara, 13048 har, sale n09478 lot 707 Sotheby's.jpg

14th-15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze with stone inlay, private collection, photo on Bonhams 

15th century?, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt metal, private collection, photo and details on Himalayan Art Resources, item 8074.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze with stone inlay, private collection, photo by Koller.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Nepalese artist, Manjushri, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by 25 Blythe Road

16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze with stone inlay, cold gold and pigments possibly added later, private collection, photo on Nagel

17th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper with glass inlay, private collection, photo on Koller

18th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze (with turquoise and coral inlay), private collection, photo on Christie’s

From the 15th century onwards, Tibetan metal sculptures of White Manjushri usually depict him seated with his legs locked, his hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of law’ gesture, two lotuses attached to his arms, to support the Prajnaparamita sutra to his left and the hilt of a sword to his right.

Tibet, Manjushri – various forms (4)

7th-8th c., Tibet, Manjushri, c.a.+traces gilding+blue pig., 19 cm, tenzingasianart.com

7th-8th century, Tibet, Newari artist, Manjushri, copper alloy with traces of gilding and blue pigment, private collection, photo on Tenzing Asian Art

This is an early form of White Manjushri, seated with his legs locked, his right hand held palm out, his left hand holding the Prajnaparamita sutra (or sometimes a conch shell) before him.

14th-15th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with traces of blue pigment, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos on aaoarts

A rare sculpture of him holding the stem of an utpala topped with a manuscript, and holding another manuscript in his right hand, held down with the palm facing upwards.

14th century, Tibet, Nepalese artist, Manjushri, gilt copper, private collection, photo on Marcel Nies

This time the hand is held with the palm downwards. The position of the fingers indicates that they once clutched an attribute, probably a book judging by the gap and the height at which the hand is held.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper with silver and turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Koller.

From the 13th century onwards, White Manjushri is often flanked by lotuses supporting a book to his left and the hilt of a sword to his right, his hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture.

16th century, Central Tibet, Tsang province, Manjushri, gilt bronze (copper alloy) with silver and copper inlay, private collection, photo on Christie’s

Manjushri with flaming sword, seated with his legs locked, his left hand doing the teaching gesture, a blue lotus fastened to his arm to support the book.

16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze (brass) with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo on  Hollywood Galleries .

Manjushri with sword, standing and holding the stem of a lotus that supports a book topped with a flaming triple gem (triratna).

17th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Nagel

A late work, showing him sword in hand, the lotus that supports the book missing or not featured.

14th century, Tibet, Manjugosha (Manjuvajra), gilt bronze with stones, private collection, photo on Nagel

14th-15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, Namasangiti, stone, private collection, photo  on Christie’s

15th century, Tibet, Manjuvajra, copper alloy with gold, copper and silver inlay, private collection, photo by Hollywood Galleries https://issuu.com/andrewlau2/docs/the_touch_of_devotion______________.

Circa 16th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts as before.

The Manjuvajra form of Manjushri may have one head and four arms, in which case he often holds a bow and an arrow, a sword, and a manuscript at heart level. In Tibet, he may hold a lotus that supports the book, as on the first two images.

16th-17th century, Tibet or China, Simhanada Manjughosha (Manjushri), zitan wood (red cedar) with cold gold and pigments, private collection, photo on Christie’s

This form of Manjushri has no book. He sits on a snow lion, in the vajra position or with one leg pendent (as above), his hands doing the ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ gesture. He may have a lotus to his left, with or without the hilt of a sword, and often has an effigy of Akshobhya in his crown (not shown here). On paintings, his body his golden yellow, hence the use of cold gold all over his skin.

18th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper repoussé, private collection, photo on Nagel

We have seen time and time again that late sculptures often depart from standard iconography. The rosary in this character’s top right hand and the gesture of salutation with his main hands are associated with a four-hand form of Avalokiteshvara, yet Manjushri is the only male bodhisattva who may hold a manuscript in one of his hands (Akashagarbha may have one on his left shoulder).

 

Tibet, Manjushri with sword (7)

11th-12th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, brass, private collection, photo by Bonhams https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/25115/lot/171/?category=list .

The bodhisattva of wisdom brandishing a sword (to cut through ignorance) and holding the Prajnaparamita sutra.

He wears a low tripartite crown with side bows, some jewellery and a cross belt.

His short garment is decorated with stippled dots and lotuses.

Circa 12th century, Western Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with traces of blue pigment, private collection, photo by Marie-Catherine Daffos for aaoarts http://www.aaoarts.com/asie/enchtibet/tibscu1.html.

Unlabelled (Tibet, Manjushri, brass), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/1696.

The manuscript may be on a lotus which he holds in his left hand. The way his dhoti forms a round shape  below the knees and the bits of cloth on each side are typical of the place and period.

Unlabelled (Tibet, Manjushri, brass?), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources https://www.himalayanart.org/items/10453.

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze (brass), private collection, photo by Christie’s.

Unlabelled (11th-12th century?, Western Tibet?), Manjushri, brass, private collection, photo by Mokotoff http://www.mokotoff.com/index/#/sculpture/.

The same character, seated at ease on a lotus atop a Kashmiri-style plinth, his book resting on a blue lotus which he holds in his left hand.

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Bonhams https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/24777/lot/32/.

On this variant he is framed by lotuses, his left foot rests on a lotus that stems from the base, his left hand is open.

17th century, Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with traces of cold gold, private collection, photo by Nagel.

Here, his left hand does the teaching gesture.

 

Tibet, Manjushri – various forms (3)

12th century, Tibet, Manjushri, labelled Avalokiteshvara, bronze with paint, at the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg (Russia).

This is an archaic form of Manjushri: he stands with a sword in his right hand and holds the stem of lotus in the other (alternatively he may hold a book in his left hand but not both). The above has stiff legs, a knee-length garment and princely accessories decorated with geometrical incisions typical of early West Tibetan art.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt copper alloy with turquoise and coral inlay, cold gold and lapis lazuli powder, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

White Manjushri seated, his hands ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘, two lotuses fastened to his arms to support the hilt of a sword and the Prajnaparamita sutra.

13th c., Tibet, Manjushri, samkshipta guhyaka, bronze+sil. eyes+cop. lips+traces cold g.+blue pig., 33 cm, 6 heads, lotuses+books, triratna crowns+on books, 13508 har, Sotheby's

13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, samkshipta guhyaka form, bronze with silver and copper inlay, traces of cold gold and blue pigment, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

A rare sculpture of him in his six-head and two-arm form, the hands held in the meditation gesture and holding the stem of a day and a night lotus, each supporting a book topped with a triple gem (triratna). The same design decorates the front panel of each crown. His lower garment has a copper and silver-inlaid hem and lotus design.

13th c., Tibet, Manjushri, samkshipta guhyaka, bronze+sil. eyes+cop. lips+traces cold g.+blue pig., 33 cm, 6 heads, lotuses+books, triratna crowns+on books, rear, Sotheby's

Circa 15th century, Namasangiti Manjushri, brass, at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel (Switzerland), photo on Himalayan Art Resources.

In his one-head and four-arm form, seated in the vajra position, holding a sword and an arrow in his right hands, a bow and a blue lotus supporting a book in the others.

15th century, Tibet, Guyasamaja (Manjuvajra) with consort, gilt copper, private collection, photo by Hanhai auction.

In his esoteric 3-head and 6-hand form, embracing his consort, who also has 3 heads and six arms, Manjuvajra crosses his main hands over her back and holds an arrow and a sword in his right hands, a bow and a blue lotus in his left hands. She holds the same attributes.

Tibet, peaceful Manjushri – variations (2)

11th century, Tibet, White Manjushri (labelled Siddhaikavira), bronze (brass) with paint, at the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg (Russia).

Unlike the rare siddhaikavira form, which has no book, the above holds a blue lotus topped with the Prajnaparamita sutra. His right hand is held palm out in a fear-allaying gesture. The lotus base may not be he original. He wears a low tripartite crown and has long braids of blue hair falling over his shoulders, his face is painted with cold gold and pigments.

12th c. cir., Tibet, Manjushri, bronze+cold g., 13 cm, long tresses, utpala+book, chased lotus+diamond motif on dhoti, Sotheby's

Circa 12th century, (Western) Tibet, Manjushri, bronze with cold gold, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

A rare archaic example with a blue lotus to his right, the book supported by another tall stem on the other side, his right hand doing the gesture of supreme generosity. His long dhoti is decorated with stippled lotuses within a chased diamond pattern. We will note the solar design on his crown and matching nipples, the large floral armbands worn very high up and the floral design incised in the palm of his right hand, the geometrical pattern on the ribbon of his crown and on his book, the incisions on the stems of the lotuses and on the zigzag folds at the front of his garment, all pointing to the Western Tibet.

Undated, Tibet, Manjushri, metal (brass), at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel (Switzerland).

A rare sculpture of Manjushri seated at ease with a meditation strap around his right knee, leaning on his left hand and holding the stem of a blue lotus that supports a book topped with pearls, possibly made by an Indian artist in Tibet.

14th century, Tibet, Manjushri, copper alloy, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources.

This Indian-style figure is seated with a leg pendant, his right hand doing the teaching gesture, the left hand holding a blue lotus topped with a book.

12th-13th century, Tibet, Manjushri, brass with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo by Bonhams.From the 13th century onwards, Manjushri may be depicted with both hands before his chest, ‘turning the wheel of dharma‘ and holding the stem of lotuses, one supporting the book, the other supporting the hilt of a sword.

This rare example wears a knee-length dhoti decorated with stippled and chased lotuses

and a matching scarf around his shoulders.

15th c., Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze+stones, 9,3 cm, Paris Sotheby's

15th century, Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

By the 15th century, the book (missing here) is often placed against a triangular foliate panel on the blue lotus.

15th c., Tibet, Manjushri, gilt bronze+stones, 9,3 cm, cape, lotuses+attributes, Paris Sotheby's

The bodhisattva wears a richly decorated Chinese-style silk shawl and matching dhoti.

17th c., Tibet, Manjushri, bronze,  private collection, photo by Polyauction.

This Pala-revival sculpture shows Manjushri standing and framed by tall lotuses that support the attributes while his right hand does the gesture of generosity and his left hand does the teaching gesture.