Pala India, a few wrathful deities (2)

12th century, India, Achala, copper alloy, private collection, published on http://www.pundoles.es

Half kneeling and half crouching, Achala wields a sword and holds a lasso that hovers over his shoulder. His eyes are inlaid with copper, his fangs with silver, his tall chignon is dyed with red pigment. His leopard skin loin cloth (incised with large circles) is held in place with a heavy belt decorated with a floral buckle.

11th century, Northern India, Hevajra, brass with cold gold and pigments, is or was at the gTsug Lakhang, published by Ulrich von Schroeder.

Heruka Hevajra, who protects agains the demons (maras), is seen here in his one-head  version, with two hands and two legs, one of them resting on a victim, the other in the air with the knee resting on a lotus sprouting from the pedestal – an arrangement seen on Tibetan sculptures a few centuries later.

He holds a thunderbolt sceptre in his right hand, a bell (instead of the usual skull cup) in his left hand, and has a ritual staff propped against his left shoulder. His tightly-fitting leopard skin loin cloth is held in place with a festooned belt. He wears a garland of human heads.

12th century, Northern India, Hevajra, brass with cold gold and pigments, is or was at the gTsug Lakhang, published by Ulrich von Schroeder.

A similar iconography, with the left hand missing, the orange paint on his hair likely to be more recent. He is accompanied by two attendant female deities.

Undated, India, Hevajra, copper alloy, private collection, Holly Auctions on Himalayan Art Resources.

Pala India, Vajrapani

11th century circa, Northeast India, Vajrapani, copper alloy with copper inlay, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

Standing on victims, Vajrapani holds a thunderbolt sceptre horizontally in his right hand and does a gesture to ward off evil with the other while holding a lotus that supports a fertility goddess. His hair is fastened with cobra snakes (nagas) and topped with an effigy of Akshobhya. He has copper-inlaid eyes, urna and accessories and is adorned with snakes.

12th century, India or Tibet, Vajrapani, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

This Vajrapani holds the vajra almost vertically and extends his left hand to display a missing attribute, probably a vajra-handled bell (ghanta). He wears a tight-fitting tiger skin loin cloth, the head of the animal placed over the right knee.

He has silver-inlaid eyes. His fan-shaped hair is fastened with three nagas, his body is adorned with serpents, including a long one used as a sacred thread.

12th century, Northeast India or Western Tibet, Vajrapani, bronze (brass), private collection, photo by Christie’s.

Another example with a tight-fitting animal skin (leopard in this case) with no legs or tail dangling. His left hand does a gesture to ward off evil and hold a (missing) lasso at the same time.

 

Tibet, Bhurkumkuta (2)

14th century, Tibet, bronze (brass), private collection, photo by Rossi & Rossi.

Bhurkumkuta, with three heads topped with a vajra finial and six hands, holds a double thunderbolt sceptre (visvajra) in his upper right hand. His other attributes vary. The above has an upturned vajra-handled bell in his lower left hand.

Undated (15th century circa?), Tibet probably, gilt metal with turquoise inlay, private collection, published on Himalayan Art Resources.

Like most wrathful deities, he wears a tiger-skin dhoti and snake ornaments, complemented here with turquoise inlaid foliate jewellery. Standard attributes may be a visvajra, a vajra, a hook, a stick and a lasso. This one holds the visvajra and a vajra-handled bell (ghanta) in his upper hands, an 8-spoke wheel and a missing object in the middle ones, a stick (or perhaps a pestle) and a lasso in the lower ones.

Undated (18th century circa), Tibet, Bhurkumkuta, private collection, same as before.

 

Tibet, Chakrasamvara – various forms (3)

17th century, Tibet, White Chakrasamvara (labelled Amitayus), gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, at the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston (USA).

Rarely seen in sculpture, the white form of Chakrasamvara has one head with three eyes, two hands, two legs, and is always seated with the consort (on paintings they may be standing).  She holds two skull cups and he holds two long-life vases.

16th century, Southern Tibet or Nepal, Chakrasamvara, copper alloy, at the Art Institute of Chicago (USA).

This rare works depicts another form, with one head and four arms, standing with his consort, her legs wrapped around his waist. He holds a drum and a ritual staff in the upper hands, a vajra sceptre and a bell in the main ones across her back. Vajrayogini wears an intricate bone apron fastened with a belt with raining jewels and a garland of skulls. He wears a long garland of severed heads around his neck.

Undated, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, copper alloy, at the Tibet House museum in New Delhi, published on Himalayan Art Resources.

A very similar image, possibly from the same period and which may also have had a tall plinth below.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

This Densatil-style sculpture depicts him with four heads and six hands. The upper ones hold the legs of an elephant (whose hide he usually wears across his back), the middle ones hold a bell and what looks like a noose (although one would expect a thunderbolt sceptre), the remaining hands hold a drum and a skull cup.

Undated (16th century circa), Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt metal, at a mountain sanctuary, published on Himalayan Art Rsources.

Most sculptures of Chakrasamvara depict him in his four-head and twelve-hand form, with Vajrayogini, his feet over two victims and holding a series of attributes discussed in previous posts. She may have one or both legs around his waist.

Tibet, Chakrasamvara – Sahaja Heruka (4)

Late 15th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper with pigment and stone inlay, private collection, photo by Christie’s.

This form of the deity has one head and two arms and stands with the consort, Vajrayogini, their legs in the same position (as in the Newar tradition).

His hair is tied in a chignon topped with a wish-granting jewel and he usually has a visvajra and a crescent moon in his headdress.

She holds a skull cup and a flaying knife, and wears a leopard skin loin cloth and a garland of skulls; he wears a tiger skin and a garland of freshly severed heads and holds a vajra sceptre and a bell across her back.

Undated, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, copper alloy with pigment and cold gold, private collection, published on Himalayan Art Resources.

On this more archaic work the low skull-tiara reveals a large visvajra in his headdress and a small crescent moon to his left-hand side.

16th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper, is or was at the gTsug Lakhang, published by Ulrich von Schroeder.

His consort has both legs around his waist, a Tibetan variant attributed to the teachings of various Mahasiddhas such as Luipa and Maitripa (as explained by John C. Huntington and Dina Bangdel in The Circle of Bliss, Serindia Publications, Chicago, 2003).

Between the 15th and 17th century it is not uncommon for deities, whether seated or standing, to have billowing scarves forming an arch around them.

Undated (16th-17th century?), Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt metal and pigment, private collection, published on Himalayan Art Resources.

Tibet, Chakrasamvara – 12 hands (4)

16th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

The deity and his consort stand on two victims, over a single lotus base with an unusual petal arrangement and geometrical incisions between two rows of beading.

He has four heads with three eyes and twelve arms, she has one head and two arms. They both wear skull crowns and turquoise-inlaid jewellery. He has a crescent moon and an effigy of buddha Akshobhya in his headdress and large earrings shaped like four-petal flowers recalling visvajras (double thunderbolt sceptres).

Same as before, photo by Christie’s.

They hold the usual attributes, skull cup and flaying knife for her, elephant hide, drum, axe, flaying knife, vajra sceptre, trident, for him in his right hands, elephant hide, staff, skull cup, noose, Brahma’s head on the other side.

16th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo by Nagel auctions.

Vajrayogini usually stands on one leg and holds the other around his waist.

16th century, Western Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper alloy and pigments, at the Musée Guimet in Paris (France).

He normally has black or bluish hair but this one has red hair.

16th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper alloy and pigments, private collection, source unquoted, published on 1bp.blogspot.com.

On this and the previous example the consort has both legs around his waist, a feature observed on 16th and 16th-17th century works (and associated with the Luipa tradition).

Same as before, private collection, photo by Bonhams.

Her hair is often painted with red pigment.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, wood and pigment, private collection, photo by Koller.

 

 

Tibet, Chakrasamvara – 12 arms (3)

15th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper, is or was at the gTsug Lakhang, published by Ulrich von Schroeder.

Standing on two victims, Chakrasamvara with four heads and twelve hands embraces his consort, Vajrayogini, who has one head and two hands.

Same, brass, at the Fondation Alain Bordier in Gruyère (Switzerland).

He holds a vajra sceptre and a bell in his main hands crossed over her back, she holds a vajra-handled flaying knife and a skull cup (but may hold two vajras instead), and wears a bone apron and a garland of skulls.

Same as before, photo by Anne Lozes.

He holds the hide of an elephant stretched across his back and wears a garland of 50 freshly severed human heads.

15th century, Tibet, Chakrasamvara, gilt copper alloy with stone inlay, private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

His remaining right hands hold an axe, a drum, a flaying knife and a trident, the left hands hold a skull cup, a noose, a staff, Brahma’s head with four faces.

Same, photo by Koller.

The order may vary but the lower hands normally hold the trident and Brahma’s head.

15th century, Tibet, Chakrasamavara, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Sotheby’s.

He often has a crescent moon in his headdress, to his left-hand side.