Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (18)

16th-17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), wood, private collection, photo on Drouot.

Yellow Jambhala, an emanation of buddha Ratnasambhava, has a peaceful yaksha appearance and is nearly always seated, holding a jewel-spitting mongoose in his left hand and a citron or a gem-shaped fruit in the other at knee level. The above wears a celestial scarf and cross-belt.

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze, stones and plinth renovated, private collection, photo on Gazette Drouot as before.

He sometimes has a pot of gems against his right arm and his right foot usually rests on a pot of gem welded to the base.

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze (brass), private collection, photo on Drouot .

An example with an incised geometrical motif around the plinth and on his garment.

18th century or earlier, Tibet or Nepal, Jambhala, gilt bronze with turquoise (and glass), private collection, photo on  Gazette Drouot.

We have seen quite a few sculptures of him sitting on a lotus atop an openwork base supported by vases of abundance.

Undated (circa 16th century?), Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze with turquoise and coral inlay, private collection?, photo on GG-ART .

On this masterpiece with Chinese-style features, such as the shape of his topknot and the fat lotus petals with a curly tip, the mongoose is vividly and realistically rendered.

Advertisements

Tibet, Jambhala – various forms (4)

13th-14th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt

Black Jambhala, standing on Ganapati, a mongoose in his left hand and a skull cup in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled ‘Green Jambhala), stone, private collection, photo on AguttesIn most cases he holds the animal head down so that it disgorges jewels onto the base.

18th century, Tibet, (Black) Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt 

Naked, ithyphallic and always adorned with snakes, he is also known as Dimbla or Ucchusma Jambhala. Instead of crushing the elephant-headed deity he may stand on a human victim, neither of which appear on this more recent work.

Unlabelled (Tibet?, brass with silver eyes and copper lips and hem), private collection, photo on HAR  

White Jambhala may ride a dragon sideways and hold a jewel-spitting mongoose under his left arm, in which case his right hand would wield a sword or hold a stick (missing here).

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo on Casa d’Aste

He may also mount a snow lion but when he holds a mongoose in his left hand he normally has a sword in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on LeclèreYellow Jambhala, with a peaceful yaksha appearance, seated at ease on a throne covered with a cloth, holding his mongoose in his left hand and a citron in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, silver with turquoise inlay on a gilt copper alloy base, private collection, photo on HardtHe often has his right foot on a vase of abundance attached to the base.

Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (17)

12th century, Tibet, Jambhala, copper alloy, at the Lowe Art Museum, University of Michigan (USA), photo on Bridgeman

Peaceful Jambhala, seated at ease on a lotus base, his right foot placed on a pot of gems, holding the usual citrus fruit and mongoose, his gentle face enhanced by large floral earrings and a double row of pearls.

Undated, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Yellow Vaishravana’, bronze, location not quoted, photo on gg-art

On this Pala-style work his right foot is on a conch shell atop long-life vase fastened to the plinth, his lotus seat supported by small vases.

16th-17th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo on Barakat

An unusual sculpture with the long-life vase in the crook of his right arm (we saw one from the Pacific Asia Museum), his mongoose disgorging jewels arranged in a shape used in Tibetan Buddhist art to symbolise the visvajra.

Circa 17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Vaishravana’), bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 105 China 1.

A more severe figure, with frowning brow and curly beard, no third eye, dressed in the Chinese fashion (long and loosely fitting lower garment, shawl over his shoulders), his mongoose vomiting large jewels onto the base.

17th century probably, Tibet, Jambhala, copper alloy with cold gold , turquoise and pigments, private collection, photo on Van Ham

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, stone with pigments, private collection, photo by Andrew Lau for  Hollywood Galleries

On late Chinese-style sculptures he often has a moustache as well as a beard, and no third eye.

Tibet, Black Jambhala (9)

Undated, Tibet, Black Jambhala, stone, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources

On this very old sculpture made of black stone it is difficult to see the lower part of the body but the skull cup in his right hand held at heart level identifies him as the black form of Jambhala, who stands or squats on Ganapati or on a human victim.

Undated, (Tibet), Black Jambhala, copper alloy, photo by Hanhai Auction on Himalayan Art Resources, item 44102.

He is always naked and ithyphallic and doesn’t wear a crown. He may have an effigy of a buddha in his headdress. On this early work he has a mitre-like hairstyle and his upper fangs bite his lower lip.

Undated, (Tibet), Black Jambhala, metal?, at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel, photo on Himalayan Art Resources, item 3314899.

The human (who is a ‘treasure owner’) often vomits jewels like the mongoose Jambhala holds with his left hand.

Undated, Tibet or Ladakh, Black Jambhala, brass, is or was at the Matho monastery, photo on HARInstead of squatting he may stand in a fighting pose, with a knee bent and the other leg straight.

Undated, Tibet or Ladakh, Black Jambhala, brass, is or was at the Matho monastery, photo on HAR

15th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), stone,  at the Pacific Asia Museum in Pasadena (USA).

His hair is secured with a snake and he wears snake bracelets, armbands, anklets, necklace and sacred cord, although on later examples he may be wearing a princely necklace.

Undated, Tibet?, Black Jambhala, copper alloy with pigment, photo by Hanhai Auction on Himalayan Art Resources, item 44315.

This one wears a garment (perhaps an animal skin or human hide over his back?) fastened with a belt, and has a tiered hair bun reminiscent of some 18th century Mongolian works.

Tibet, Jambhala – various forms (3)

17th-18th century, Tibet, Green Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo by Auctionata U.S. on The Saleroom

Not normally seen in sculpture, Green Jambhala usually sits in embrace with is consort. He may hold a triple gem specific to him, a lemon, like Yellow Jambhala, or a skull cup like Black Jambhala. The above is seated at royal ease, his right foot resting on a conch shell attached to the base. So far, the only solitary peaceful-looking seated Jambhala that we have seen with a skull cup and a mongoose is labelled ‘Black Jambhala’ on Himalayan Art Resources (see link for reminder: here).

W-15th c., Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze, 11,2 cm, on dragon, Important C. Art, London, 7 nov 2018, Sotheby's

15th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo Sotheby’s

This rare work depicts White Jambhala seated on a dragon and accompanied by three attendants (on paintings he is shown with four). He has a peaceful face with three eyes and holds a trident in his right hand and possibly a folded banner in the other. The female figure on the left holds an elephant hook and a bowl.

15th century, Eastern Tibet (labelled ‘China’ on Himalayan Art Resources, item 71161), White Jambhala, ivory, at the Art Institute of Chicago (USA) on ARTIC

Another rare sculpture of him, with a mongoose in his left hand, a ritual staff against his left arm and a broken implement, probably a sword, in his right hand. The dragon holds jewels between its claws. Below him are four dakinis, one holds flaming jewels and a vase, another holds a trident and a skull cup.

17th century, Tibet, White Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Artkhade

He may also hold a club adorned with jewels in his left hand.

17th century, Tibet (labelled ‘China’ on Himalayan Art Resources, item 32764), White Jambhala, gilt bronze with traces of polychromy, private collection, photo on Drouot

Chinese-style works usually give him a wrathful countenance. The position of his hands suggests that he held a stick in his right hand and a mongoose in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), silver, at the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences in Sydney (Australia)  maas.

 

Tibet, Black Jambhala (8)

14th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala, metal (brass), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources

A rare Pala-style image of Black Jambhala standing on a male victim, his eyes inlaid with copper, his naked body adorned with snakes and a celestial scarf with one end dropping and the other flowing upwards. He holds a skull cup and a jewel-spitting mongoose, his victim, possibly Yellow Jambhala, holds jewels.

Undated, Tibet or Nepal?, Black Jambhala, stone, private collection, photo on HAR

14th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala, stone, private collection, photo on St George Gallery

Alternatively he crushes elephant-headed Ganapati, who vomits jewels. Either victim is related to wealth.

13th-14th century, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on Christie’s

Labelled ’16th-17th century’, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo here

An unusual image of Jambhala standing in a warrior-like pose but holding a citron in his right hand instead of a skull cup. He has Chinese-style facial hair and wears princely jewellery and crown, which also departs from the traditional iconography.

18th century, Tibet or Mongolia, Black Jambhala, bronze, private collection, Photo by Nagel, sale 103 China 2.

Instead of a celestial scarf, the above wears a long snake tied at the bottom and the only other accessory is a snake holding his flaming hair together. He stands on a Mongolian-style base.

18th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled Yamantaka), bronze (copper alloy) with traces of gilding, private collection, photo on PBA

Jambhala is one of very few wrathful deities from the Tibetan buddhist pantheon  to have an ithyphallic form. The other two are the Vajrabhairava aspect of Yamantaka and Yama Dharmaraja.

Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (16)

Undated (circa 14th century?), Tibet, Jambhala, (brass), private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources.

Tibet, Jambhala, (labelled ’18th century, Krishna’), bronze, private collection, photo by Nye and Company.

We saw similar Pala-style sculptures of Yellow Jambhala, including two at the British Museum in London, all dating from the 13th and 14th century. He sits at royal ease with his right foot on a vase of abundance and holds a citrus fruit in his right hand and a mongoose in the other. One of his accessories is a garland of vases.

(Circa 13th century?, Western Tibet), Jambhala, brass?, at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel (Switzerland), on HAR.

(Circa 13th century?, Western Tibet), Jambhala, brass?, at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel (Switzerland), photo on HAR.

Two different looks and yet both typical of the Western Tibetan style, Inspired by Pala art but with distinctive features such as the stippled lotus print, the incised accessories, the exaggerated side bows of the crown,  the lotus base, the singular design of the jewels disgorged by the mongoose, and an overall bonhomie.

Undated, Tibet, Jambhala, metal, private collection, photo on Himalayan Art Resources

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo by Hardt Auctions .

Late Chinese-style works often give Yellow Jambhala an angry look.

18th century? (labelled circa 12th century), Tibet, Jambhala, iron, possibly from a meteorite, private collection, photo by Nagel, auction 104.

They also depict him with a silk shawl over his shoulders and a loosely draped lower garment.