Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (20)

13th-14th c., Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo by Christie’s on HAR

Yellow Jambhala is holding a tiny mongoose by the neck with his left hand and displaying a (missing) citrus fruit with the other. He sits with his right leg pendent, the foot placed on a lotus stemming from the lotus base.

13th-14th century, Tibet?, Jambhala, copper alloy with silver and copper inlay, private collection, photo on Ethereal .

On this elegant sculpture derived from the Pala-style, his right foot is placed on a pot of gems. Silver has been used for the eyes, copper for the lips, and both metals for the shorter necklace and the armbands; his long dhoti is decorated with a chased geometrical pattern. His accessories include a garland.

14th century, Tibet?, Yellow Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo by Poly Auction, sale HKS3316-2 lot 3233.

A variant, with a long-life vase below his right foot.

17th century (or earlier?), Tibet, Walking Jambhala, bronze (copper alloy) with silver-inlaid eyes and turquoise, private collection, photo on Hardt .

A rare and surprising sculpture of Jambhala in a walking pose, holding his mongoose in his left hand and a round citrus fruit or gem in the other, his right arm stretched sideways. His short dhoti is deeply engraved with a (tiger skin?) pattern. His hair is tied in a large bun, he has a beard and bushy eyebrows and wears princely jewellery, no crown.

18th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), polychrome stone, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 100 China 2.

Tibet, Jambhala – various forms (5)

13th-14th century, Tibet?, Black Jambhala, copper alloy, private collection, photo on Ethereal

Black Jambhala always stands in a war-like pose, fierce, naked and ithyphallic (the auctioneers inform that this figure’s phallus is broken), treading on a single victim who may be Ganapati but is often a male figure holding a treasure. The above has an upright vajra sceptre in his hair.

13th-14th century, Tibet or Ladakh, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on Nagel

He holds a skull cup or a pot of gems in his right hand, often before his heart, and a mongoose disgorging jewels in the other.

Circa 16th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala, copper alloy, Josette and Théo Schulmann collection, photo on  Gazette Drouot

The victim himself may be vomiting jewels.

17th-18th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled ‘Yellow Jambhala), bronze, private collection, photo on Drouot .

Only 5 cm tall, this figure was likely made for a portable shrine.

14th-15th century, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze with turquoise and coral inlay, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 736 China 4 as before.

This is a singular image of wrathful Jambhala with a noose in his right hand. He stands on two victims and holds a mongoose in his left hand (not visible here).

16th century, Tibet (or later Chinese copy?), Rakta Jambhala, bronze, private collection?, photo on gg-art

Rakta (Red) Jambhala has three heads, six hands, in which he holds various implements, and four legs treading on two yakshas who vomit jewels. On this example he has a mongoose in each of his lower hands, a skull cup filled with gems and a triple gem in his middle hands, an elephant goad and a (missing) lasso or snare in the upper ones. There is a small pot of gems on the pedestal.

Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (19)

12th century, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze (brass), private collection, photo in Spirit of Compassion on Marcel Nies .

This rare and superb work is one of a group of Indo-Tibetan sculptures depicting Yellow Jambhala with a tall chignon, dressed in a long lower garment and adorned with Pala-style accessories and a garland of flowers. In this case the double-lotus base is supported by a row of pots and his right foot also rests on a pot covered with a lotus flower. His mongoose vomits strings of jewels and the citron in his right hand has been incised to look like a set of three jewels.

15th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), gilt copper alloy, private collection, photo on Bukowskis .

Here he is seated on a single lotus with four long-life vases attached to it and his left foot is placed on a conch shell.

15th-16th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled’Kuvera’), bronze with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo on Millon .

Another single lotus base with four ritual pots plus an extra one in the crook of his right arm.

16th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo on Heritage

16th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Christie’s, 1999.

This Yellow Jambhala holds a vase overflowing with jewels under his right arm and a rosary in his left hand, which is very unusual. Christie’s inform that he is seated on ritual pots (kalasas) but make no mention of the mongoose.

15th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Christie’s 2019 .

Another rare and similar sculpture, with strings of jewels spilling from each pot onto the lotus base.

A view of the back shows that he has a mongoose under his left arm as usual.

17th-18th century, Tibet (or Nepal?), Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), copper alloy, photo on Drouot  

Yellow Jambhala with wheel

16th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Drouot .

One of a series of Nepalese-style images of peaceful Jambhala, a mongoose in his left hand and a citron in the other, seated at ease, youthful and pot-bellied, his eyes wide open, a row of thick curls arranged neatly on his forehead, adorned with princely jewellery and coiffed with a low tiara with two small gem-like components and a large central wheel of dharma. Unfortunately on all of them the base (and possibly the backplate) is missing.

Himalayan Region, Yellow Jambhala, photo on HAR  

He wears small hoops, a short necklace with three round pendants, matching armlets, bracelets and anklets, and has a sacred cord across his chest, either beaded or plain.

Unlabelled, Jambhala, at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel (Switzerland), photo on HAR .

This one has no anklets and no wheel in his headdress but we may assume that he once did. Except for the distinctive tiara, all 3 are very similar to a brass figure of Jambhala seen in a previous post and reproduced below for comparison:

14th century, Nepal, Yellow Jambhala (labelled Kubera), brass, private collection, photo by Galerie Petillon.

Undated, Ming, Jambhala, copper alloy, private collection, photo by Golden State Auction Gallery.

This is a different version (presumably made in China), unusually ithyphallic, with no belly button, larger hoops, an oval face, long strands of hair over his shoulder and a long beaded necklace instead of a sacred cord.

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt Curiously, this late Chinese-style statue of an elderly Jambhala with a moustache and beard and a five-leaf crown includes a wheel on his topknot.

Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (18)

16th-17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), wood, private collection, photo on Drouot.

Yellow Jambhala, an emanation of buddha Ratnasambhava, has a peaceful yaksha appearance and is nearly always seated, holding a jewel-spitting mongoose in his left hand and a citron or a gem-shaped fruit in the other at knee level. The above wears a celestial scarf and cross-belt.

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze, stones and plinth renovated, private collection, photo on Gazette Drouot as before.

He sometimes has a pot of gems against his right arm and his right foot usually rests on a pot of gem welded to the base.

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Kubera’), bronze (brass), private collection, photo on Drouot .

An example with an incised geometrical motif around the plinth and on his garment.

18th century or earlier, Tibet or Nepal, Jambhala, gilt bronze with turquoise (and glass), private collection, photo on  Gazette Drouot.

We have seen quite a few sculptures of him sitting on a lotus atop an openwork base supported by vases of abundance.

Undated (circa 16th century?), Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze with turquoise and coral inlay, private collection?, photo on GG-ART .

On this masterpiece with Chinese-style features, such as the shape of his topknot and the fat lotus petals with a curly tip, the mongoose is vividly and realistically rendered.

Tibet, Jambhala – various forms (4)

13th-14th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt

Black Jambhala, standing on Ganapati, a mongoose in his left hand and a skull cup in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Black Jambhala (labelled ‘Green Jambhala), stone, private collection, photo on AguttesIn most cases he holds the animal head down so that it disgorges jewels onto the base.

18th century, Tibet, (Black) Jambhala, gilt bronze, private collection, photo on Hardt 

Naked, ithyphallic and always adorned with snakes, he is also known as Dimbla or Ucchusma Jambhala. Instead of crushing the elephant-headed deity he may stand on a human victim, neither of which appear on this more recent work.

Unlabelled (Tibet?, brass with silver eyes and copper lips and hem), private collection, photo on HAR  

White Jambhala may ride a dragon sideways and hold a jewel-spitting mongoose under his left arm, in which case his right hand would wield a sword or hold a stick (missing here).

17th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt copper alloy with turquoise inlay, private collection, photo on Casa d’Aste

He may also mount a snow lion but when he holds a mongoose in his left hand he normally has a sword in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, bronze, private collection, photo on LeclèreYellow Jambhala, with a peaceful yaksha appearance, seated at ease on a throne covered with a cloth, holding his mongoose in his left hand and a citron in the other.

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, silver with turquoise inlay on a gilt copper alloy base, private collection, photo on HardtHe often has his right foot on a vase of abundance attached to the base.

Tibet, Yellow Jambhala (17)

12th century, Tibet, Jambhala, copper alloy, at the Lowe Art Museum, University of Michigan (USA), photo on Bridgeman

Peaceful Jambhala, seated at ease on a lotus base, his right foot placed on a pot of gems, holding the usual citrus fruit and mongoose, his gentle face enhanced by large floral earrings and a double row of pearls.

Undated, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Yellow Vaishravana’, bronze, location not quoted, photo on gg-art

On this Pala-style work his right foot is on a conch shell atop long-life vase fastened to the plinth, his lotus seat supported by small vases.

16th-17th century, Tibet, Jambhala, gilt bronze (copper alloy), private collection, photo on Barakat

An unusual sculpture with the long-life vase in the crook of his right arm (we saw one from the Pacific Asia Museum), his mongoose disgorging jewels arranged in a shape used in Tibetan Buddhist art to symbolise the visvajra.

Circa 17th century, Tibet, Jambhala (labelled ‘Vaishravana’), bronze, private collection, photo by Nagel, sale 105 China 1.

A more severe figure, with frowning brow and curly beard, no third eye, dressed in the Chinese fashion (long and loosely fitting lower garment, shawl over his shoulders), his mongoose vomiting large jewels onto the base.

17th century probably, Tibet, Jambhala, copper alloy with cold gold , turquoise and pigments, private collection, photo on Van Ham

18th century, Tibet, Jambhala, stone with pigments, private collection, photo by Andrew Lau for  Hollywood Galleries

On late Chinese-style sculptures he often has a moustache as well as a beard, and no third eye.