Circa 12th century, Eastern India, Achala (labelled ‘Vighnantaka’), bronze, private collection, photo on Rossi & Rossi
Vighnantaka is a generic term to refer to wrathful deities who remove obstacles, such as Achala. He is depicted here in his blue form (nila) identified by the way he bites his lower lip with his upper fangs. He stands on Ganapati, wielding a flaming sword with the right hand and doing a threatening gesture with the other, a lasso wound around the forefinger.
12th century, Northeast India, Krodha Vighnantaka? (labelled ‘protector’), bronze with silver and copper inlay, private collection, photo by Christie’s.
We saw a very similar 12th century Tibetan figure identified as Krodha Vighnantaka by Sotheby’s. This deity with a yaksha appearance may have one head and two hands or three heads and six hands. The above has silver-inlaid eyes and teeth, a copper-inlaid crown, he wears a tiger skin loin cloth and snake adornments, including one to tie his hair. He holds a sword and a lotus in his top hands, a vajra stick (instead of another sword) and a lotus in the lower ones, his main hands are crossed over his heart.
12th century, Easter India, Mahakala, porphyritic basalt, at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London (UK).
Chaturbuja (four-arm) Mahakala stands with both feet on a victim, holding a skull cup and a flaying knife in his main hands, a rosary and a staff topped with a skull and a trisula in the upper ones. He is adorned with snakes, jewellery, a small tiara and a garland of severed heads, his flaming hair is tied with a snake.
12th century, Northern India, Achala, bronze (brass), private collection, photo on Artkhade.
Blue Achala, half kneeling and half crouching, his upper fangs biting his lower lip, wielding a sword and holding a lasso.
11th-12th century, Eastern India, Hevajra, parcel-gilt bronze, photo by Dr P. Pal in article on asianart
Guhyasamaja Hevajra is always depicted with Vajranairatmya, who has one head and two hands. He has 8 heads (in this case probably 5 small ones at the back), 4 legs, 16 hands, in which he holds skull cups containing animals and deities. They stand on four victims.