Manjushri brandishes a flaming sword and holds a blue lotus topped with a book/manuscript with the other hand. This large sculpture (131 cm without the base) corresponds to the Indian Pala style and may have been made by an Indian artist in Tibet but his large head was almost certainly made in the Lhassa region by a Tibetan artist. The double-lotus base with broad rounded petals looks posterior (15th century circa).
His short dhoti is decorated with an incised floral motif and a small festooned belt and held in place with a belt knotted at the back and decorated with a large floral motif.
Fierceful Manjushri is seated with a leg pendant, his foot on a lotus stemming from the base, brandishing a sword above his head, holding a lotus topped with a manuscript with his left hand, seated on a Pala-style double-lotus base, adorned with princely jewellery, his tall Indian-style chignon topped with a finial inlaid with turquoise, his low tiara held decorated with large bows, his knee-length dhoti incised with a stippled floral motif and held in place with a belt decorated with incised lozenges. This form of Manjushri (Arapachana) was popular until the 13th century, then was gradually replaced with a more peaceful form with the hilt of his sword coming out of a lotus to his right. On paintings, Arapachana can be white or orange, which creates confusion because in sculpture “white” normally means peaceful and on late works the hilt of the sword is not always clearly visible.
This Pala-style Manjushri wears a celestial scarf and carries a large lotus with no book on it.
On this “Pala revival” sculpture, Manjushri has a Chinese-style crown with festoons. His dhoti is decorated with a “modern” stippled swirly motif and some silver-inlaid dots that imitate the Indian Pala style.
This is an archaic form of Manjushri, standing on a stepped platform, holding a stiff lotus topped with a large book and brandishing a sword very similar to the sword on three 11th-12th century sculptures of Manjushri made in Western Tibet, published in a previous post. He has marked pectorals and incised facial features. He wears an ankle-length dhoti decorated with incisions, a triangular belt or garment that drops over the dhoti, and a thin sash across the hips. Apart from standard circular earrings, there are two deep holes in his throat, difficult to explain.
This other curious and archaic sculpture, possibly part of a triad of bodhisattvas, depicts Manjushri with a sword stemming from his hand. He has marked pectorals and sculpted facial features. He wears a short dhoti decorated with a stippled floral motif. His prominent knee caps are typical of sculptures made in Western Tibet around the 11th and 12th century and those made in Ladakh earlier. He wears jewellery and a sacred thread, a triangular belt or garment over his dhoti similar to that of the previous image, and a broad celestial scarf (incised like the belt and sacred thread).